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1 Chapter 3 WHICH LETTERS ARE CUT? 1 Cutting as far as possible This chapter describes which letters used in the TO form...

Chapter 3 WHICH LETTERS ARE CUT? 1 Cutting as far as possible This chapter describes which letters used in the TO forms of words can be cut without undermining (rather, the cut improves) the regularity of the sound-symbol correspondence. In most cases it is clear which letters need to be removed: for instance, the B in doubt (Rule 1), the last vowel in principal/principle (Rule 2), and one C and one M in accommodate (Rule 3). In a few cases, however, the proposed cuts entail disadvantages that may be thought to outweigh the advantages. This chapter aims to explore the potential for cutting out letters to the maximum, but explains the disadvantages that occasionally arise. It must be left to the discretion of adult learners not to make cuts which they find excessive, but if CS were to be formally implemented as a standard spelling system for teaching literacy skills to beginners, the implications of the more radical or controversial cuts recommended in this Handbook would need further consideration, with a view to excluding some of them, at least initially, from the system. 2 Illustration by progressive use of CS spellings As each pattern of letter cutting is explained, the CS forms concerned will from then on be used in the Handbook, so that the effect may be observed. At first, therefore, only a few CS forms occur, but they become steadily more common, until by the end of Chapter 5 the full CS simplified orthography is seen in operation. This progressive introduction of CS means that, early on, many partial CS forms are found, with some redundant letters cut, but others not. For example, Rule 1 cuts initial W from TO written, giving ritten; but Rule 2 later cuts the E, so that rittn is then the form used until Rule 3 simplifies the double T, producing the final CS form, ritn. The spellings used in Chapter 3 are therefore often not final CS, but intermediate, illustrating the effects of cutting step by step. To check the final CS form of any word, readers should refer to the dictionary in Part III. 3 The Cutting Rules Of the three Cutting Rules, readers will notice that Rule 1, which cuts letters irrelevant to pronunciation, occupies as much space as Rules 2 and 3 together. This is partly because in TO every letter of the alphabet except

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(arguably) Q, R, V, Z sometimes meets the Rule 1 criterion of irrelevance to pronunciation, several letters doing so in a large number of different contexts, and a long catalogue is therefore needed to cover the many words and patterns involved; but Rule 1 is also more complex because it discusses numerous isolated, doubtful cases (eg, whether or not the unique TO form choir can be cut to CS coir). Rules 2 and 3 on the other hand may cut as many letters from a typical text as Rule 1, but as the patterns are fewer and more comprehensive, they can be described more succinctly. As explained in Chapter 2, the learner is not expected to memorize the many patterns presented in this chapter. Chapter 3 and the following two are designed for reference, providing a detailed catalogue and analysis of cutting patterns. The exercises in Part II on the other hand will be found to provide not merely learning material with copious examples, but a much more transparent survey of the patterns themselves. The briefest overview, with paradigms for most of the different patterns, is however found on pages 2-15, in the ‘Contents & Catalogue’ preceding Chapter 1. 4 Presentation Each cutting pattern is headed in bold type with a schematic, generalized description of the cut being made. Examples and explanations then follow, with any TO model for the cut form in brackets. A typical item under Rule 1, Letter A, would then be EA > E: head/hed (bed). Forms preceded by an asterisk (eg, *pencl) are inadmissible, while those followed by an asterisk are exempt from the normal cutting rules (eg, comma*).

Rule 1: LETTERS IRRELEVANT TO PRONUNCIATION For Rule 1, the letters and their redundant occurrences are listed below alphabetically, letter by letter. Within the entries for the more complex letters, the various patterns are also listed alphabetically (though sometimes under broader sub-headings, such as ‘initial’, ‘final’, ‘postvocalic’ etc), so that any particular spelling pattern can be quickly located.

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Redundant A A.1 AE > E A.1.1 AE > E: anaemia > anemia The letters AE (formerly often written as the ligature Æ) in words derived from Greek or Latin, such as encyclopaedia, mediaeval and many medical terms (eg, anaemia, anaesthetic, faeces, haemorrhage) are now increasingly written without A, especially in America (and generally in French). CS follows this trend, which gives encyclopedia (cf French encyclopédie), medieval, anemia (cf French anémie), anesthetic, feces, hemorrhage, etc. A.1.2 AER- > AR-, ER-? The root AER- as in aerial, aeroplane, etc, clearly contains a redundant vowel letter, as seen by comparison with A in area and E in sombrero; but whether the A or the E should be regarded as redundant is unclear. Forms such as *aroplane, *eroplane are both potentially misleading when set beside, for instance, arid, aroma, era, erotic, and since initial AER- is in any case a rare spelling pattern, it is felt better to leave it uncut. It might furthermore be preserved in these cases as a possible model for later spelling regularization of this sound, with forms like air, bear, spare being respelt aer, baer, spaer; but such changes are not contemplated for CS. A.2 EA > E A.2.1 Final EA > E in monosyllables: tea/te Flea, pea, plea, sea, tea etc are cut by analogy with TO be, he, me, she, we, giving CS fle, pe, ple, se, te (cf E.1.2.1 for see — se, Y.2 for key — ke etc). Some users hesitate at the brevity of the resulting forms, especially when suffixes are added, as in the plural (TO seas, CS ses) and in compounds (CS penut, seside, tecup may appear to have short E as in pet, set etc); but the cut forms (se, ses etc) are recommended for their economy and predictability, enabling TO me, tea, fee, key to align as CS me, te, fe, ke. Parallel in other languages are te in the Scandinavian languages, té in Spanish, and tè in Italian. A.2.2 EA > E-E: long E doubly indicated A.2.2.1 peace > pece By cutting the redundant A, CS aligns TO peace with rhymes fleece, Greece, which lose a medial E (see E.2.1.3), and niece, piece, which lose I (see I.1.3). CS then writes flece, Grece (cf Grecian), nece, pece. The long E in cease, A.2.2.2 -EASE > -ESE: ease > ese crease, decease, grease, increase, lease, release (with voiceless S) and disease, ease, please, tease (with voiced S) is shown twice in TO, by the digraph EA and by ‘magic’ E. The TO ending of these, diocese, Chinese provides a model for CS cese (cf French cesser), crese, decese, grese, increse, relese, disese, ese, plese, tese. Cutting ease to ese requires easy to be written esy, which some users find disturbing. The above cuts do not

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distinguish between voiced/voiceless S in ese, cese etc, although this could be done in a number of ways. Most simply, the A could be kept in the voiceless forms (cease etc), with only the voiced forms allowed to align with these, Chinese (ese, plese etc). If letters were to be substituted, the voiceless forms could be spelt with SS (ceass, creass, releass etc), while S was retained for the voiced forms (ese, plese etc). Alternatively, Z could be substituted in the voiced forms (theze, Chineze, dioceze, diseze, eze [also ezy], pleze), with S left in the voiceless forms (cese, crese etc). However, since TO does not distinguish voiced/voiceless S in the -EASE words, and since TO forms with -EESE (geese, cheese, E.2.1.3) can also be reduced to -ESE, the latter is recommended for all the above words, leaving the /s, z/ distinction to be introduced, if desired, by a later reform (see Chapter 6, §1.4). A.2.2.3 -EATHE > -ETHE: breathe > brethe The TO verbs breathe, sheathe, wreathe also have their long vowels doubly indicated, and lose A, to become brethe, shethe, wrethe (contrast the CS nouns breth, sheath, wreath; and cf E.2.1.3 for CS sethe from TO seethe). The final E in brethe etc may be taken also to show voiced TH, which further distinguishes the pronunciation of breth/brethe, wreath/wrethe. It is perhaps regrettable that the noun/verb pairs sheath/shethe, wreath/wrethe come to spell their vowels differently; but CS does not allow the kind of solution to this anomaly which a more radical reform might suggest (eg, shieth/shiethe, etc). This spelling occurs in A.2.2.4 -EAVE > -EVE: leave > leve bereave, cleave, eaves, heave, leave, weave, but TO offers a simpler model in eve, breve, Steve, and CS therefore writes bereve, cleve, eves, heve, leve, weve. (E.2.1.3 and I.1.3 show how by similarly cutting the patterns of sleeve, receive, believe to sleve, receve, beleve some notoriously troublesome variants of English spelling are aligned.) The loss of A in these words also brings them closer to related forms such as bereft, cleft, left, weft, and provides a direct parallel with breth > brethe. TO cleaver becomes CS clever, but since TO clever becomes CS clevr by Rule 2, the two words remain distinct. The plural of leaf, sheaf retains the A of the singular, giving CS leavs, sheavs, not *leves, *sheves (cf E.1.1.15). A.2.3 -EA- > -E- pronounced as short E A.2.3.1 -EA- > -E-: head > hed There are in TO about 50 mostly common base-words (and many more derivatives) spelt with EA pronounced as short E (the A being redundant): bread, breadth, breakfast, breast, breath, cleanliness, cleanse, dead, deaf, dealt, death, dread, dreamt, endeavour, feather, head, health, heather, heaven, heavy, instead, jealous, lead (the metal), leant, leapt, leather, leaven, meadow, meant, measure, peasant, pheasant, pleasure, read (past tense), ready, realm, spread, steady, stealth, sweat, thread, threat, treachery, tread, treasure, wealth, weapon, weather, zealous. The standard use of E, EA (as in bed, bead) gives CS bred,

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bredth, brekfast, brest, breth, clenliness, clense, ded, def, delt, deth, dred, dremt, hed, helth, hevy, insted, led, lent, lept, ment, red, redy, relm, spred, stedy, stelth, swet, thred, thret, tred, welth; the other words in the TO list above also lose A, but their CS forms are not shown here as they lose other letters too (eg, jealous > jelus). (cf French levain, mesure, trésor; Welsh ffesant, mesur, pleser) Two particularly useful effects of this cut are firstly to align the metal led with the homophonous past tense of the verb to lead (he led), rather than, as in TO, with the infinitive; and secondly, the past tense of to read is aligned with its homophone, the colour red, rather than with the infinitive and present tense of the verb, as confusingly occurs in TO. A slight complication arises from cutting those of the above words in which the EA is followed by a single consonant and a vowel (heady, ready, steady, sweaty, treading etc), in that, by TO patterns of sound-symbol correspondence, the CS form may appear to suggest a long E vowel rather than the short one; thus redy, swety might be misred as reedy, sweety. To prevent any such ambiguity, it would be possible to double the consonants and write heddy (cf eddy) and swetty (cf jetty). However, E rarely has its long value in such positions (long E is usually spelt with a digraph), so such misreading would be unlikely; furthermore, the reduction of most -ING suffixes to CS -NG enables final CS to distinguish the endings of tredng and preceding, the latter keeping its full -ING ending. This pattern is discussed further in Sections 2 and 3 of the present chapter (Rule 2 on inflections, Rule 3 on simplifying doubled consonants, §2.5), and we will here simply note the recommended final CS forms hedy, redy, stedy, swetng, dredng, hedng, spredng, thredng, tredng. A few words with -EARA.2.3.2 -EAR- > -ER-: earn > ern pronounced as ER also lose A: earl, early, earn, earnest, earth, heard, hearse, learn, pearl become CS erl, erly, ern (cf fern), ernest (cf the name Ernest), erth (cf berth), herd, herse (cf verse), lern (cf tern), perl (cf French perle). A.2.4 EA > E pronounced as long A A.2.4.1 -EA- > -E-: break > brek More controversial than the above EA > E cuts are three words with EA pronounced as AY: break, great, steak (also biblical yea and some Irish names such as Reagan, Shea, Yeats). CS can cut the A and write brek, gret, stek (cf French biftek, Italian bistecca for beafsteak); but some writers may prefer the TO forms, although they misleadingly suggest that break/beak, great/eat rhyme. CS asks not whether brek, gret, stek are ideal spellings, but whether they offer a sufficient improvement on break, great, steak to justify cutting the A. Is it better for great to appear to rhyme with bet (whose vowel is phonetically closer) or with beat? CS writes brekfast in any case by Rule A.2.3.1. This Handbook will henceforth use the phonetically closer, more economical forms without A, but a sounder, if more radical, solution (not proposed for CS) would be to respell these words with another vowel digraph;

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possibilities include replacing the A by I to give breik, steik, greit (cf TO eight, freight, weight which become CS eit, weit, freit), or else reversing the EA with the digraph AE to give braek, graet, staek, or else (visually more disturbing than EI or AE) using the common TO digraph AI to give braik, grait, staik. Especially confusing in TO A.2.4.2 -EAR > -ER: pear > per are the tear words, of which five (bear, pear, swear, tear, wear) conflict with the standard pronunciation of the rest (appear, clear, dear, drear, ear, fear, gear, hear, near, rear, shear, smear, spear, tear, year), with tear itself pronounced either way according to meaning (contrast teardrop, wear & tear). These can be distinguished in CS by cutting the A from the anomalous five (ber, per, swer, ter, wer). Some users feel that bear etc should not appear to rhyme with her, and the merger of TO wear/were as CS wer may seem even more questionable; but in some accents bear, her rhyme anyway, and the merged CS form ther for TO their/there (cf E.1.3, I.1.4) establishes a coherent set of words with this pattern of symbol-sound correspondence. This regularity is recommended as economical and much preferable to the irregularity of TO. More radical would be to use TO their as a model and respell the bear-group as beir, peir, sweir, teir, but TO wear respelt as weir would conflict with TO weir; another radical alternative would be to write baer, paer, swaer, taer, waer (cf A.1.2, aerial), but such forms are not proposed for CS. A.3 -OA- > -OA.3.1 broad > brod Just as CS recommends cutting the TO spellings break, great, steak to brek, gret, stek to give a less anomalous but still imperfect spelling, so it can cut the A in broad which in TO suggests a rhyme with road. Clearly the A is anomalous, but it may be objected that CS brod is no better, as it falsely appears to rhyme with rod. Arguments in favour of brod are: O often has the AW value (eg, as before R in or, bore, story and in some accents before other letters too — Scots pronounce cot as caught, offal as awful, and some speakers give the O in lost, off, ought the same value as in broad), and the OA of broad is phonetically closer to the O of rod than to the OA of road anyway. As with brek etc, we must ask not whether brod is an ideal spelling, but whether it is better than broad. With A, broad is uniquely anomalous and inevitably leads to mispronunciation by foreign speakers; without A, brod conforms to some existing patterns and is more economical; it is therefore recommended for CS. A.3.2 -OAL > -OL? An O before L is widely pronounced long (bold, bolt, soldier, control), and this model might enable coal, foal, goal, shoal to cut A, giving *col, *fol etc (cf U.3.3 for TO soul cut to CS sol, also W.2 for TO bowl cut to CS bol and E.1.1.8.2 for objections to cutting dole, mole, pole, sole, vole to *dol etc; droll, roll, stroll etc become drol, rol,

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strol by Rule 3). Historically there has been much uncertainty over these patterns, with coal/cole formerly alternative spellings. Yet although cutting A in -OAL would help align the TO variants foal, pole, roll, soul, bowl, there are difficulties: TO col, doll (CS dol) with short O show a different sound-symbol correspondence, and -ING forms such as coaling might be unrecognizable as *colng. It is therefore recommended that when TO represents the long value of O with the pattern OAL or with ‘magic’ E, no cut should be made, so that TO coal, pole and parallel spellings are unchanged, although soul, bowl, roll etc are cut. A more radical reform than CS might, however, suggest the unambiguous ‘German’ digraph OH for the long O here, giving cohl, pohl, sohl, bohl, etc. A.3.3 -OAR > -OR: coarse > corse CS can cut A from words containing OAR by deeming them to have the vowel sound of OR: oar, board, coarse, hoarse are then written or, bord, corse, horse. However, pronunciation varies, and some users may prefer to keep or/oar, horse/hoarse, coarse/course etc distinct. A.3.4 LOATH > LOTH: loathe > lothe CS cuts A from loath, loathe by analogy with loth, both, clothe to giv loth, lothe. In TO most adjectives A.4 -ICALLY > -ICLY: basically > basicly ending in -IC add -ALLY to form their adverbs (basic > basically). However, public does not do so, and final CS adopts the pattern of publicly for the TO -ICALLY words too, giving basicly, chronicly, domesticly, enthusiasticly etc. In fact, after CS Rule 2 has harmonized endings as in musical, simple to give musicl, simpl, CS aligns several variant patterns by which TO forms adverbs (TO publicly, basically, musically, simply); the CS rule is that adverbs are formed by adding -LY to the adjective (or just -Y if the adjective alredy ends in -L), giving CS publicly, basicly, musicly, simply (final E is still dropped as in TO: noble > nobly). In this section of Chapter 3 adverbs based on -IC words will henceforth be written -ICLY (basicly), but -AL words will still write their adverbs -ALLY (eg, naturally, normally) until Rule 2 (Category 1, 1.1.L.A) is applied, giving natrlly, normlly; Rule 3 (5.2.1.LL) then simplifies the LL to give CS natrly, normly, to achieve final, full alignment with publicly. A.5 Miscellaneous: cocoa > coco The letter A in aisle, ay, aye, beauty, cocoa, quay is anomalous and is cut (isle, y, beuty, coco, quy, though final CS makes further cuts in some of these). CS also prefers the shorter form bazar to its longer TO alternative bazaar, and if we pronounce restaurant with only two syllables, we can cut the AU to give restrant. TO carriage, marriage align with TO vestige without A, as carrige, marrige. The common American reduction of toward(s) to a single syllable could suggest a CS form tord(s)

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Redundant B B.1 Short vowel +MB > +M: dumb > dum Silent final B occurs in a number of words after a short vowel +M, with the B in those marked † below inserted by analogy although never pronounced and etymologically unfounded: aplomb, bomb, crumb† (Samuel Johnson’s 1755 dictionary gave crum as an alternative to crumb), dumb, jamb, lamb, limb†, numb†, plumb, succumb, thumb†. CS writes these words with final M: aplom, bom (cf from), crum, dum (cf sum; TO alredy has dumfound and dummy without B), plum (cf Welsh plwm ‘led metal’) etc. But B must be kept in bombard, crumble etc, where it is pronounced. Parallel forms ending in M (ram, dim etc) double the M before -ING in TO (ramming, dimming), but by CS Rule 2 merely add -NG (ramng, dimng); the same pattern applies after the loss of final B in verbs ending in TO -MB, giving bomng, lamng, plumng, succumng, thumng. (For further discussion of this question, see Rule 2, §2.NG on cutting -ING, and Rule 3, §3.2 on simplifying doubled consonants.) Silent, medial B occurs in debt, doubt, B.2 -BT > -T: debt > det subtle, although these words were erlier written without B. CS writes: det (cf French dette, and rhyming let), dout (cf French doute, and rhyming out) and (after applying Rule 2) sutl. When final -MB follows a B.3 No cut in long vowel +MB: comb long vowel as in climb, comb, tomb, womb, CS keeps the silent B, as it has the same function as ‘magic’ E. Thus tomb is not cut to *tom, nor must climb appear to rhyme with him. Respelling, perhaps as clym, cohm (or coam), toom, woom (or even tuum, wuum, or twm, wwm), would resolve the problem, but such radical changes are not envisaged for CS (see Chapter 6, §1.3.2 for further discussion of clym for climb).

Redundant C C.1 -CK > -K: see Rule 3 Although the C in CK is effectively redundant and so normally cut, the CK digraph will be treated as a doubled consonant, equivalent to CC or KK, and its loss of C is therefore discussed in Section 3 of this chapter, under Rule 3, along with the simplification of all other doubled consonants. C.2 -CQ- > -Q-: acquit > aquit Redundant C occurs in the digraph CQ (acquaint, acquiesce, acquire, acquit, lacquer), and cutting then produces aquaint (cf aquatic), aquiesce, aquire (cf aquiline), aquit (and, after other cuts, laqr). See also Rule 3 (§4.1, Note 3). C.3 SC- > S-: descend > desend After S, the letter C is often redundant before E, I, Y (in scent, scissors, scythe it was even inserted without etymological justification): adolescent, ascetic, descend (contrast

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descant), disciple (contrast disco), miscellaneous, muscle (despite muscular; but cf mussel), nascent, scene, scent, sceptre (contrast sceptic, septic), science, scissors, scythe, viscera. CS writes asetic, desend, disiple, nasent, sene, sent, sience, sythe (and, after other cuts, adlesnt, mislaneus, musl [for both muscle, mussel], septr, sisrs, visra). But after a short stressed vowel and immediately before another vowel letter, as in resuscitate and in words ending in -SCE (eg, TO acquiesce, coalesce, effervesce, reminisce), the C is needed, exactly as SS is in these circumstances (see Rule 3, §2.4SS) — such forms as *coales or *reminise would be quite misleading. (After Rule 2 has introduced a following consonant, the C can be cut in the normal way, giving final CS adlesnt, aquiesnt, coalesd, remnisng.) C.4 SCH > SH: schist > shist In various (often German or Yiddish) words with initial SCH- pronounced as SH, the C can be cut, giving eg, meershaum, shist, shmaltz, shnapps, shnitzel, shwa, unless priority were given to retaining the international spelling of such words. Schedule has the problem that it would become shedule by British pronunciation, but scedule by American pronunciation as recommended by Noah Webster; for the sake of uniformity it is therefore recommended the initial SCH- of schedule be left uncut (cf O.4.2 for a similar Anglo-American dilemma over TO route). (See E.1.1.8.3 for cutting to schedul.) Schism could be cut to sism, shism or scism, according to an agreed pronunciation. C.5 -XC- > -X-: except > exept Cutting C in exceed, excel, except, excerpt, excess, excise, excite produces CS exeed, exel, exept, exerpt, exess, exise, exite. It may be objected that the C here serves to show that the X is pronounced as voiceless /ks/, rather than as voiced /gz/ (except/exempt for instance often contrast voiceless/voiced X); but voicing is alredy so variable without C in TO (execute may have voiceless X, but in executor the X may be voiced) that cutting C after EX- may be seen rather as a helpful simplification. Furthermore, morphemic S was lost after X in Latin before the pattern entered English and is therefore not found in exist (despite consist, persist, resist etc), expect (despite aspect, inspect, respect), expatiate (despite spatial), expire (despite conspire, inspire, perspire, respire), extinguish, exert (contrast desert), exude, exult (contrast insult, result), and by this analogy CS need not keep C in exite (despite incite, recite etc) either. The final CS form of TO excellent is exlnt See also Rule 3 (§4.1, Note 3). C.6 Silent C is cut from victuals, yacht (final CS vitls, yat). The alternative TO form tsar is preferred to czar, as better indicating the sound and as a more exact transcription of the Russian spelling. C.7 Retaining C as SH: conscience > concience In a number of words C is associated with S, together representing the sound of SH, and the possibility can be considered of cutting either S or C from TO conscience, conscious, crescendo, fascist, fuchsia, luscious. Since C alredy has the value

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of SH in some words (eg, ocean, musician, ancient, suspicion, delicious), that might be regarded as another standard value of C, perhaps with a view to a longer term reallocation of the values of C which could transfer its two main values to K and S and keep SH as its sole unambiguous value (steps in this direction are taken under C.8, C.9, below; see also Chapter 6, §1.3.2). See under S.5 for discussion of th CS cut of S from conscience, conscious, etc. C.8 S preferred to C: defence > defense When alternative (often American) forms use S, CS prefers them to forms with C: defense (cf also French défense), license, mortise, offense (cf French offense), practise (for TO practice, but with final CS practis), pretense; erlier expence is now expense in TO. We may, however, hesitate in the case of American vise for British vice(the tool), insofar as it conflicts with the voiceless/voiced C/S alternation of advice/advise, etc. C.9 K preferred to C: disc > disk CS prefers unambiguous (often American) K to ambiguous C where alternative forms with K alredy exist in TO: ankylosis, disk, leukemia, mollusk, skeptic rather than anchylosis, disc, leuchaemia, mollusc, sceptic. C.10 -CTI- or -XI-: connection or connexion? the -CTI-/-XI alternatives, see X.

For discussion of

C.11 Silent ‘magic’ C retained: indict Silent C has a ‘magic’, lengthening effect on the preceding I in indict, and would have to be kept, unless the word were respelt indyt (perhaps by extending the IG > Y substitution rule explained in Chapter 4 and also discussed in Chapter 6, 1.3.2). TO indite has a different meaning. Redundant D D.1 -DG- > -J-: see Chapter 4 The digraph -DG- serves as a kind of doubled soft G after a short vowel (badge, ledge, bridge, lodge, budge, gadget, porridge, dodgem, cudgel, judgment). However, if soft G is always spelt J in CS (see Chapter 4), the D is redundant and can be cut, resulting (after other cuts) in baj, lej, brij, loj, buj, gajet, porij, dojm, cujl, jujmnt. Until J is substituted for DG, the D will be kept in this digraph. D.2 ADJ- > AJ-: adjust > ajust In initial ADJ- (adjacent, adjective, adjoin, adjourn, adjudicate, adjust, adjutant) the sound of the D is alredy represented in the following J (as shown by the phonetic representation of the sound as /d /), and is cut to give ajacent, ajective, ajoin, ajourn, ajudicate, ajust, ajutant (cf ajar). French, it will be noted, alredy uses the forms: ajourner, ajuster. See also Rule 3 (§4.1, Note 3).

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D.3 -D- beside -N-: handkerchief > hankerchief In a few words (handkerchief, handsome, sandwich, Wednesday) D is commonly unpronounced next to N and can then be cut, giving hankerchief, hansome, sanwich, wenesday (final CS hankrchief, hansm, wensday). Redundant E, the most commonly cut letter when converting TO to CS, may occur in final position (discussed in Subsection 1, below), in medial, or, occasionally, initial position (Subsection 2), and in inflections (Subsection 3). E.1 Redundant final E E.1.1 After consonants. E.1.1.1 the > th The economy of writing the most common word in English as th is attractive, but the reduction tends to grate with new readers of CS, and some users feel that its pronunciation demands E. However, if sea, see, key etc are cut to se, se, ke (see A.2.1, E.1.2.1, Y.2), it would be useful for th/be not to suggest a rhyme, as be/the misleadingly do in TO. It is worth recalling that in 16th century writing an phrase such as TO the other could be compressed to thother. Some alternative E.1.1.2 TO alternatives: axe > ax spellings with and without final E are alredy found in TO, th shorter form especially in America. Where TO may write axe, adze, caviare, Cypriote, preterite, ptomaine, stye (cf E.1.2.5), CS prefers ax (American; cf tax), adz (American), caviar, Cypriot, preterit, ptomain, sty. Similarly CS prefers American program to programme, and would prefer th SS endings of carcass, premiss to th alternatives with final E (carcase, premise), if E.1.1.13 below did not align these words with canvas (carcas, premis). E.1.1.3 O with short U-value + consonant +E: come > com Words having O with a short U-value lose misleading final E: com, som (cf company, home), don, non (cf son), dov, glov, lov (contrast move, drove). Words ending in suffix -SOME (eg, awsome) similarly lose this E (final CS awsm). E.1.1.4 -FE > -F: carafe > caraf This ending occurs in carafe, giraffe, wich ar cut to caraf, giraff (final CS jiraf). E.1.1.5.1 -DGE > -DG > -J: see Chapter 4 (See D3 and Chapter 4 for DG > J substitution.) Redundant -E is cut after DG as in badge, ledge, bridge, lodge, judge, knowledge, porridge (cf TO Bridgnorth, acknowledgment, judgment with DG without following E). E.1.1.5.2 -GE > -J: see Chapter 4 If, as is suggested in Chapter 4, CS always substitutes J for soft G, final -E is cut from word-final TO -GE, unless it has ‘magic’ function indicating a preceding long vowel.

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Final -E is therefore kept in waje, enraje, besieje, oblije, huje etc, but cut from words such as language, village, privilege, vestige, giving languaj, villaj, privilej, vestij (final CS beseje, vilaj, privlej). E.1.1.6 -GUE > -G: league > leag Several polysyllabic words ending in British TO -OGUE are written just -OG in America and therefore also in CS: analog, catalog, demagog, dialog, epilog, monolog, pedagog, synagog, etc. Similarly, league, colleague, meringue, tongue becom leag, colleag, mering, tong (ambiguity between TO tongs/tongues, both spelt tongs in CS, would be clarified by th context). Final (‘magic’) -E is not cut when th preceding vowel has long value, as in vague, fatigue, intrigue, vogue, fugue, although respelling of soft G with J (see Chapter 4) can allow th U to be cut (see U.2.1), giving CS vage, fatige, intrige, voge, fuge (contrast soft G respelt J in CS paje, prestije, oblije, huje). E.1.1.7 Consonant +LE > consonant +L: little > littl Unless th final -E is ‘magic’, indicating that th preceding vowel is long, CS cuts it in this position, giving eatabl, edibl, solubl, doubl, uncl, tickl, beadl, paddl, muffl, eagl, toggl, principl, appl, steepl, wrestl, beetl, littl, dazzl (preceding doubld consonants in these words are subsequently simplified by Rule 3). But th long A, I, U in able, maple, bible, rifle, noble, scruple etc require th ‘magic’ -E to be kept, as does th long E in CS peple. Final syllabic -L will at first seem strange in English, but exampls of its use elsewhere may reassure: it is seen in som German forms (eg, dirndl, Lendl), in Welsh (eg, trestl, posibl), in Old English (Anglo-Saxon aepl ‘apple’) and in various other languages such as Arabic and Icelandic. Th use of final syllabic -L provides a model for cutting many other endings under Rule 2, as when TO apple/chapel, principal/principle align as appl (by Rule 3 CS apl)/chapl and principl. E.1.1.8 Vowel +-LE > vowel +-L E.1.1.8.1 -ILE > American -L: virile > viril Those (eg, Americans) who pronounce hostel/hostile, missal/missile alike, and give th same ending to agile, docile, fertile, fragile, futile, infantile, juvenile, mobile, servile, sterile, tactile, tensile, textile, virile, versatile, volatile, etc may wish to cut final -E from such words (cf fossile as erlier spelling of fossil), giving agil, docil, fertil, fragil, futil, hostil, infantil, juvenil, missil, mobil, servil, steril, tactil, tensil, textil, viril, versatil, volatil. (By Rule 2, many of these words lose -I- as well, giving eg, CS fertl, infantl, servl, versatl, etc.) These cuts are unlikely to appeal to speakers with British pronunciation, for whom th final syllabl of these words rhymes with mile. E.1.1.8.2 -OLE not cut to -OL: pole See A.3.2 above for discussion of th possibl reduction of th patterns in TO coal, pole, roll, soul, bowl to th minimal -OL pattern, as in control. It is there explained why th pattern of dole, mole, pole, role, sole, vole should not lose final -E.

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E.1.1.8.3 -ULE > -UL: module > modul Th brodly similar pronunciation of words ending in -UAL (actual, etc) and -ULE (module, etc) can be shown in CS by cutting both endings to -UL, giving modul and by Rule 2 (§1.6.3 etc) actul. Other -ULE endings occur in TO globule, ridicule, schedule, which then becom CS globul, ridicul, schedul. TO annul* is th only polysyllabic form already ending in -UL, and it remains anomalous — se Rule 2, §1.6.3.XV.3.XUL. E.1.1.9 -NE > -N: destine > destin Words with final -INE sounded as -IN such as TO destine, determine, discipline, doctrine, engine, examine, famine, feminine, genuine, heroine, imagine, intestine, jasmine, masculine, medicine, urine lose th -E, giving destin, determin, disiplin, doctrin, engin (cf French engin), examin, famin, feminin (cf French féminin), genuin, imagin, heroin, intestin, jasmin (cf French jasmin), masculin (cf French masculin), medicin, urin; these forms then match their rhymes assassin, bumpkin, catkin, coffin, cousin, dolphin, margin, origin, penguin, resin, robin, virgin, etc and are distinguished from words with long I such as define, supine etc. (Many words of th destin type also lose their I by Rule 2, eg, final CS destn.) Where th I has long ‘continental’ value as in machine, routine etc, final -E is not cut, though especially in th case of chemical substances th pronunciation may vary — TO glycerine, for instance, may rhyme with either machine or with medicin, and CS then prefers th shorter value for its more economical spelling. Redundant final -E also occurs in a few monosyllabls after N: in addition to don, non (cf E.1.1.3 above), th past tense of shine loses its -E, turning TO shone into CS shon (cf on, tone). E.1.1.10 Europe > Europ would lose final -E (cf develop).

If place-names are cut, Europe

E.1.1.11 -QUE > -Q: plaque > plaq Unless it has ‘magic’ function, indicating a preceding long vowel (as in opaque, clique, critique, mystique, oblique, pique, physique, technique, brusque), final -E is removed from th -QUE ending, and masque, plaque, arabesque, burlesque, grotesque, picaresque, picturesque, baroque, torque, mosque becom (with additional loss of silent U after Q for which see U.2.2) masq, plaq, arabesq, burlesq, grotesq, picaresq, picturesq, baroq, mosq. For British barque, cheque, CS bark, chek, see under Q. E.1.1.12 -RE > -R E.1.1.12.1 Ar, wer, wher These very common words have a misleading final -E which CS removes: ar (cf bar, bare), wer (cf her, here). Th pronunciation of there, where can be usefully distinguished from that of here by writing ther, wher, though at th expense of an apparent rhyme with her (see under A.2.4.2 pear — per, I.1.4 their — ther for discussion of this point). CS wher alredy occurs in TO wherever.

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E.1.1.12.2 Consonant +-RE > -E: centre > centr CS cuts final -E from th British forms calibre, centre, goitre, manoeuvre, meagre, reconnoitre, septre (TO sceptre), sombre, spectre, theatre giving calibr, centr, goitr, meagr, manoeuvr, reconnoitr, septr, sombr, spectr, theatr. (If th final -E has a ‘magic’ function, indicating a preceding long vowel, th TO form is not cut: acre, fibre, litre, lucre, mediocre, metre, mitre, ochre, ogre, sabre, saltpetre.) Forms such as CS centr overcom th American-British discrepancy between th spellings center/centre, since th equivalent American forms with -ER also lose th E; but this occurs by Rule 2, not Rule 1 as here, and is explained in Section 2 of this chapter. E.1.1.12.3 -IRE > -IR: Cheshire > Cheshir If shire names ar not pronounced with long I, th final -E may be cut: Cheshir. Final -ORE E.1.1.12.4 -ORE > -OR: before > befor loses -E in adore, before, bore, core, deplore, explore, fore, ignore, more, ore, sore, store, swore, tore, whore (cf for, abhor), giving CS ador, befor, bor, cor, deplor, explor, for, ignor, mor, or, sor, stor, swor, tor, whor. Th E is similarly cut befor suffixes, as in CS adord, explorr, ignorng (see Rule 2 for these forms). Th reduction of th prefix fore- to for- overcoms th uncertainty surrounding th spelling of forgo/forego. For som speakers, notably Scottish, th loss of this final -E may disturb if their pronunciation distinguishes short O in or (giving it th same value as in off) and long O in more, giving it th same value as in mole. Here, as elsewher, CS proposes that th standard spelling should represent th simplest common denominator among current pronunciations. E.1.1.12.5 -URE > -UR: nature > natur Unstressed -URE, as in exposure, figure, injure, lecture, leisure, mesure, nature, picture, pressure, procedure, seizure, tenure, tresure, verdure etc, loses final -E, giving CS exposur, figur, injur, lectur, leisur, mesur, natur, pictur, pressur, procedur, seizur, tenur, tresur, verdur etc. (See Rule 2 for forms such as figr, lecturr, mesurng.) However, when final -URE is stressed with th -E effectively having ‘magic’ function, it is not cut and CS keeps th TO form of endure, manure, mature, secure etc. CS brochur implies first syllable stress. E.1.1.13 Retaining or cutting -SE: tense, practis CS normally keeps final -E after voiceless S to avoid confusion with voiced inflectional -S; dense, tease etc ar thus not cut to dens, teas (cf retention of final -SS by Rule 3, §1.7 & 2.4.SS). Befor a suffix beginning with a consonant, th E can be cut, so CS rites else, but elswher. Various disyllabic words with stress on th first syllable and voiceless S lose final E by analogy with TO atlas, tennis, giving carcas, practis (for TO practice as well as practise; cf Welsh practis), premis, promis, purchas, purpos, porpois, tortois; these endings then align usefully with simplified -SS forms like CS compas, trespas (se Rule 3, §1.7.SS), and contrast with th different letter

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values of forms retaining -SE, like erase, surprise, suppose, turquoise, etc. Th TO alternatives carcass, premiss for carcase, premise wer discussed under E.1.1.2 above; for TO cheese, geese (CS chese, gese), see E.2.1.3 below. A particular anomaly is whose, which as a possessive, comparabl to hers, its, ours, thers, yours (see Chapter 5 for possessive apostrophe), is cut to whos (final CS hos). French final -SSE with stressed final syllable is cut to -SS, giving finess, largess, lacross, as well as mouss. Final vowel +TE E.1.1.14 -TE > -T: opposite > opposit loses -E exept when th -E is ‘magic’, indicating a preceding long vowel. This enables CS to distinguish nouns/ajectives such as appropriat, delegat, graduat, immediat from corresponding verbs such as to appropriate, to delegate, to graduate, to mediate on the other, and likewise many other such pairs. Similarly CS distinguishes definit, infinit (final CS defnit, infnit) from finite, and aligns opposit with deposit (formerly spelt deposite). Minut (= 60 seconds) is distinguished from th ajective minute (= ‘very small’). E.1.1.15 -VE > -V: give > giv Words ending in th sound /v/ usually have a following silent and (unless ‘magic’) redundant final -E in TO. If th -E is not needed to show a preceding long vowel (as in save, eve, alive, move, rove), CS cuts it, as in som very common words such as hav (cf lav, save), giv, liv (cf spiv, dive), as well as in siev (for loss of medial E to giv final CS siv, E.2.1.4 below), and in many words ending in TO -LVE, -RVE, such as salv, twelv, solv, starv, serv, curv. TO mauve is cut to CS mauv. Particularly common ar words ending in -IVE: activ, subversiv, oliv. If th A in TO octave is deemed not to hav long value, CS can write octav. Th loss of -E in hav means that contracted forms such as TO I’ve, we’ve, you’ve, they’ve becom CS I’v, we’v, you’v, they’v. Th plural of leaf, sheaf, elf, loaf, thief, wolf, half, self, shelf becoms CS leavs, sheavs, elvs, loavs, thievs, wolvs, halvs, selvs, shelvs (cf A.2.2.4). Sleeve, however, keeps its final -E, being cut to sleve to align with eve, leve, receve, beleve (cf A.2.2.4 for leve, I.1.3 for receve, beleve). E.1.1.16 -WE > -W: ewe > ew Ewe rhymes with few and loses final -E, to giv CS ew. Likewise TO owe loses final -E to becom ow (in final CS th rebus I.o.u. represents th full spelling, and no longer requires full-stops). E.1.1.17 French final -E: brunette > brunett A dilemma is posed by som French loans, wher final -E may hav a function not otherwise found in English. Thus in brunette, cigarette, pipette, vignette th typically French suffix -ETTE indicates a stressed final syllabl, and it may be felt that both as a stress-marker and for th sake of international compatibility this ending should not be cut. However, forms such as cadet, minuet, quartet and th American alternativ spelling cigaret can serv as models for such a cut with final stressed syllabl, giving (with TT simplified by Rule 3) brunet, pipet, vignet (similarly CS gavot from TO gavotte). (It

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would, however, also be possibl to indicate th stress pattern by retaining th TT, as in th German Quartett.) On th other hand, CS keeps final -E from French loans such as collage (final CS colaje), so that they may be distinguished from th ending of village, etc. Mor problematic ar BritishAmerican moustache: mustache, in that th final -E may be felt to signal th special value of th CH, pronounced as SH, although this symbol-sound correspondence does not occur in final position in TO. CS here takes economy as its first priority and writes mustach, although th value of th -CH is then non-standard. E.1.2 Redundant final -E after vowels. E.1.2.1 Monosyllabic -EE > -E: fee > fe Th TO forms be, he, me, she, we show that rhyming monosyllabls such as bee, fee, knee, lee, pee, see, tee can be cut to consonant +E: be, fe, kne (final CS ne), le, pe, se, te (cf A.2.1 for sea > se etc, and for objections to these cuts; note here th peculiarity of TO foresee > CS forse; se also Y.2 for key > ke). Som parallel forms occur in th Scandinavian languages: se ‘see’, in Norwegian kne ‘knee’Polysyllabic words such as agree, pedigree, committee cannot lose final E (th contrast between acre, ogre, agree needs to be shown in th spelling), although ther is a group of polysyllabic Greek-derived words (eg, acme, catastrophe) which do use singl final -E with roughly th same value. E.1.2.2 Final -IE remains -IE: die Unlike O, U and (in monosyllabls) E, final -I does not normally have long value (as in like); its value in forms such as fungi, alibi and th names of th Greek letters xi, pi, phi, chi, psi is exeptional, as contrasted with its normal value in taxi, spaghetti etc. Therfor CS does not cut final -E from die, lie, pie, tie, vie. These words could be respelt dy, ly, py, ty, vy (se Chapter 4) to match their -ING forms (dying etc), and ar perhaps only spelt with IE in TO to prevent two-letter content words arising; when mor than one letter precedes th final vowel, TO normally uses th -Y ending (fly, shy, sky, try, reply, qualify) which ar models for several new applications of Y in CS (se Chapter 4). E.1.2.3 -OE > -O: foe > fo Words ending in -OE, pronounced long /o:/, usually cut th -E, so that TO felloe, foe, floe, mistletoe, roe, sloe, woe becom fello, fo, flo, mistlto, ro, slo, wo. Exeptions (shown with a following asterisk in th dictionary) ar required in th following cases to avoid ambiguity: doe* (cf TO do and CS doh for dough — se G.2.5.1), hoe* (cf TO who, CS ho), shoe* (cf TO show, CS sho), toe* (cf TO to; for th same reason TO tow cannot lose its -W — cf W.3.1). Possibly th special value of -OE (as in Dutch) in canoe*, shoe* may further justify keeping th -E in these two words. E.1.2.4 -UE > -U: argue > argu Final -U in coypu, emu, flu, Hindu, menu, Peru shows that TO accrue, ague, argue, avenue, blue, construe, continue, due, ensue, glue, hue, imbue, issue, pursue, queue, rescue, residue, retinue, revenue, revue, rue, sprue, statue, subdue, sue,

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tissue, true, value, venue, virtue can lose final -E, to giv accru, agu, argu, avenu, blu, constru, continu, du, ensu, glu (cf French glu), hu, imbu, issu (cf French issu), pursu, queu (final CS qu), rescu, residu (cf French résidu), retinu, revenu (cf French revenu), revu, ru, spru, statu, su, subdu, tissu (cf French tissu), tru, valu, venu, virtu (cf French vertu). Th systematic removal of this final -E resolvs a common source of error in TO (eg, *arguement, *truely for argument, truly) by giving th base-words du, tru, argu, continu etc th same spelling as their derivativs, eg, duly, truly, argument, continuation, which alredy lack th E in TO. Se E.3.2.2 and Chapter 3 Rule 2 for inflection of -U endings with -D and -S, but -ING. E.1.2.5 -YE > -Y: rye > ry Such forms as by, my, sty show that final -E is redundant in bye, dye, eye, rye, giving CS by, dy, ey, ry. In TO sty is alredy an alternativ form for stye and is preferred in CS (cf E.1.1.2, Y.3). Th extension of this regularization to die, pie, tie, vie in a subsequent reform to CS is discussed in Chapter 6, §1.3.2. E.1.2.6 -Y-E > -Y-: type > typ CS takes several steps towards regularizing th long I-sound (as in like) by using just Y (cf Chapter 4, §5 for substitutions involving Y). One way of doing this is by cutting what looks like ‘magic’ -E after long Y: if Y by itself represents th long vowel, then a following ‘magic’ -E is redundant and can be cut. For instance, th difference in pronunciation between sty and style lies only in th L, not in th final -E, which is therfor redundant, and CS can write just styl. By th same logic, words such as TO analyze, gybe, paralyze, pyre, rhyme, thyme, type, tyre ar cut to analyz, gyb, paralyz, pyr, rhym (final CS rym), thym, typ, tyr. (TO scythe, CS sythe keeps final -E to show that th preceding TH is voiced, as in sooth/soothe, wreath/wreathe [CS reath/rethe]; CS sythe has th further advantage of avoiding a misleading parallel with th non-standard short valu of Y in myth, which ought ideally to be respelt mith). (cf Y.3) E.2 Redundant medial (or initial) E E.2.1 In vowel digraphs. HEAR- > HAR-: hearth > harth Th -EAR E.2.1.1 in hearken, heart, hearth misleadingly suggests th vowel of hear and is cut to AR-, giving harken (cf hark), hart, harth. Since th French E.2.1.2 -EAU > -AU: bureau > burau spellings EAU, AU both hav th valu of long O (eg, mauve), th E can be cut from loanwords containing EAU, giving CS burau, buraucracy, platau. This admittedly has th disadvantage of undermining som internationally widespred forms, and furthermor AU for /o/ is not one of th standard English symbol-sound correspondences listed in Chapter 2. For beauty cut to beuty, se A.5 abov, and for th final cut to buty, se E.2.1.6 below.

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E.2.1.3 -EE-E > E-E: sleeve > sleve Just as A.2.2.2 cut TO lease, please etc to CS lese, plese (cf also A.2.2.3, giving CS brethe from TO breathe etc, and A.2.2.4, giving leve from TO leave etc), so medial -EEis cut when a ‘magic’ -E follows to indicate th long vowel. Thus fleece, Greece, geese, cheese, seethe, sleeve, breeze, freeze ar cut to CS flece, Grece (cf Grecian), gese, chese, sethe, sleve, breze, freze (but se A.2.2.2 for discussion of advantages, disadvantages and alternativs, and cf also I.1.3 for piece, receive, believe, seize, frieze cut to pece, receve, beleve, seze, freze). Unfortunatly th rules of CS do not allow any regularization of th anomalous TO forms precede, proceed, procedure (CS procedur), although harmonization either as precede, procede, procedur or else as preceed, proceed, proceedur would be sensibl. E.2.1.4 EI, IE > I: fiery > firy, frontier > frontir Th misleading E in height, sleight (cf high, sight, sly), fiery (cf fire, wire, wiry) and siev (cf CS liv) is cut, giving hight, slight (or better, as suggested in Chapter 4, §5, hyt, slyt), firy, siv. CS can also remove initial E- from TO eiderdown (if th loss of th initial letter is not too disturbing), and medial -Ein CS kalidoscope (but not in seismic, as *sismic would appear to hav short I). Similarly, th ending of souvenir shows that courtier, frontier, chandelier, soldier, glacier, cavalier etc can be cut to courtir, frontir, chandelir, soldir, glacir, cavalir etc. This final -IR syllabl also occurs in th monosyllabls bier, pier, tier, which can be cut to CS bir, pir, tir (th apparent rhym with fir, sir is regrettabl, but may be compared with th apparent rhym of TO pear, CS per with her, for discussion of which se A.2.4.2); th forms bir, pir, tir ar recommended for their simplicity and economy. An exeption may hav to be made for weir* which if cut to *wir would merge with th final CS form of whir(r). In th following cases, EI, IE, must remain uncut: without E, field would merge with filled (CS fild), weird would appear to rhym with bird, and conceit, deceit, receipt would appear to rhym with tacit. Either, neither need to keep their first E- to represent their alternativ pronunciations (as ‘eether’ or ‘yther’). E.2.1.5 Yeoman > yoman Yeoman loses E to match Roman. E.2.1.6 EU > U: adieu > adiu Th digraph EU can often lose E if pronounced as long U, as in adieu, amateur, grandeur, leukemia,

neural, queu, rheumatism, sleuth, which giv CS adiu, amatur (cf armatur, final CS amatr), grandur (cf verdur), lukemia, nural, quu (final CS qu), rhumatism (cf ruminate, and French rhumatisme), sluth (cf truth; for CS yuth, se O.4.2). Initial E- as in TO euphony, Europe might be cut, but th omission is very disturbing (*ufony, *Urop), with th U- in *Ustn for TO Euston appearing to hav th short U of us; also, Europ is publicly identified with initial E. TO neutral, neuter ar better cut by Rule 2, and pharmaceutical needs E to show th preceding soft C. Th words beuty, beutiful, beuteous (loss of A in TO beauty etc discussed under A.5) rhym with TO duty etc, which shows that th E is also redundant, so that CS can write buty, butiful, buteous.

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E.2.1.7 -EW > -*W: brew > *brw Th digraph -EW has at most a historical affinity with its sound valu, whose standard representation would otherwise require th digraph OO or th letter U in modern English. However, th letter W might hold som potential for representing such a sound in th context of a mor radical reform than CS — se Chapter 6, §1.5 for fuller discussion of this longer-term possibility. Ther is much confusion E.2.1.8 -EY > -Y: donkey > donky in TO between th two endings -EY, -Y, and th distinction is historically often arbitrary (eg, historically chimney, country should hav th same ending). They ar often misspelt in TO and ar somtimes alternativs, as seen in TO bogey/bogy, curtsey/curtsy, dopey/dopy, storey/story, whiskey/whisky. CS might consider keeping a ‘magic’ E to indicate a preceding long vowel, as in bogey, dopey, while not writing it in curtsy, story (alredy an American spelling for storey), whisky. However, ther ar several complications: th comparativ form of dopey/dopy is always dopier (CS dopir), never *dopeyer (th TO forms cagey/cagier ar then particularly anomalous); certain other long-vowel forms ar never written with -EY (always pony, never *poney), so a long vowel would still not be a reliabl indicator of an -EY ending; and despite a few common exeptions such as many, very, city, body, busy, TO normally distinguishes parallel short-vowel forms by doubling the preceding consonant (eg, holy/holly). Altogether therfor a lengthening ‘magic’ E befor th final -Y can generally be regarded as redundant, and CS regularly writes such words with final -Y, not final -EY, regardless of th length of th preceding vowel. Typical CS forms ar then bogy, curtsy, dopy, story, holy, holly, chimny, donky, vally (se Chapter 3, Rule 3, §2.5.1 for retention of doubld consonants in such words) etc, and after G > J substitution (se Chapter 4) cajy/cajir. (Se E.3 for plural and past tense inflections.) By cutting E from those -EY endings, CS also removes confusion with th standard valu of final -EY in they, whey, convey, purvey, survey, which keep th E (for inveigh, se G.2.3, below). After cutting th O from E.2.1.9 manoeuvre > maneuvr British manoeuvre (se O.2), giving maneuvre, CS has a choice between cutting th medial or th final E, one of them being needed to indicate th long U. By choosing th form maneuvr (in accordance with E.1.1.12.2, abov) rather than *manuvre with its ‘magic’ -E, CS aims to harmonize th British and American endings -VRE versus -VER. This is achieved by writing VR for both; th form *manuvre conflicts with American maneuver, but CS maneuvr dos not. E.2.2 Ajacent to consonants. E.2.2.1 -GE- > -J-: se Chapter 4 If CS consistently replaces soft G by J (se Chapter 4), an E serving only to indicate a preceding soft G is cut: ageing, singeing, swingeing becom ajing, sinjing, swinjing. Without this substitution ageing can still lose its anomalous E (by analogy with raging; th form aging is also found as an alternativ in TO); but singeing,

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swingeing would hav to keep E to remain distinct from singing, swinging. Befor th suffix -OUS, this E can also only be cut if J is substituted for G, enabling TO advantageous, courageous, gorgeous, outrageous to becom advantajous, courajous, gorjous, outrajous. Many words ar E.2.2.2 Medial -E- > -: every > evry written with a medial -E- in TO that is usually elided in speech. Som hav alredy lost th E in TO (eg, th old spellings enemity, lightening [for TO lightning], remenant, wintery; cf also American jewelry for British jewellery). A very large number of other words also lose elided medial -Ein CS, eg, boistrous, delibrat, evry, genral, opra, prepondrance, sevral, sovreign, Wensday. Many such cuts can also be listed under Rule 2, §1.3, below (eg, th perennially confusing separat, desperat, corporat cut to CS seprat, desprat, corprat, and secretary, monastery, dormitory alignd — at least for British speakers — with ministry as secretry, monastry, dormitry). Medial -E- in TO vegetable can only be cut after G > J substitution (se Chapter 4) to giv CS vejtabl. E.3 Redundant inflectional E Although E in th following patterns is redundant by Rule 1, being silent and irrelevant to pronunciation, th resulting cuts also relate to Rule 2 (Category 2), which governs th omission of unstressed (ie, pronounced) vowel letters in inflections. Taken together, these cuts result in a new norm for spelling inflections in English, namely that (with a few exeptions), they ar indicated by consonants only, and not by vowel letters. For an overview of all vowel omissions in inflections, se Table 3 (Patterns of vowel cut in inflections) at th end of Chapter 3, Rule 2 (Category 2). E.3.1 Consonant +ED > D: washed > washd In past tense forms of verbs whos base does not end in -T or -D, th E of th TO past tense suffix -ED is silent (it was often written with an apostrophe in th eighteenth century). Provided it does not hav ‘magic’ function, indicating a preceding long vowel (as in based, filed, hoped) and does not indicate a preceding soft C or G (as in pounced, urged), th E can be cut, giving robbd, enrichd, bridgd (by G > J substitution, brijd), roofd, soakd, peeld, dappld, roamd, paind, ringd, reapd, feard, enterd, centrd, passd, wishd, mouthd, livd, cowd, taxd, replyd (se E.3.3 below and Chapter 4 for I > Y substitution), surveyd, whiz(z)d. This E can even be cut from a base-form ending in consonant +SE, as in pulsd, tensd, lapsd, nursd. But when th E is pronounced in ajectivs ending in -ED, it is kept; so CS can distinguish th verb in they lernd from th ajectiv in they ar very lerned; and verse whos rhythm requires th inflectional E to be pronounced will spell it accordingly — contrast CS “smiling, damned vilan” (verse, Hamlet), and CS “out, damd spot” (prose, Macbeth). Th possibility of also cutting this E after -D, -T, wher it is pronounced (as in needd, fittd), is discussd under Rule 2, in th next main section of this chapter.

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E.3.2.1 Vowel +ED > D: taxied > taxid Exept for certain monosyllabls, verbs whos base-form ends in a vowel letter add just -D for their past tense, as happens in TO with words ending in silent -E (hate/hated, budge/budged). CS applies this pattern after other vowels as follows: subpoena/subpenad, acne/acned, taxi/taxid, embargo/embargod, argu/argud. Some speakers object to th endng -ID in forms such as taxid on th grounds that in their speech th vowel sound in th TO past tense ending -IED has a longer valu than th -ID ending of adjectivs such as rapid, and that CS should therfor not merge th spelling of TO candied/candid; this objection needs to be considerd together with th eyries/iris confusion mentiond under E.3.3 below. Monosyllabls ending in a vowel hav to add -ED: TO key+ed becoms CS ke+ed, TO glue+d becoms CS glu+ed; and those rhyming with go, such as TO crow, mow, row, snow, sow, stow becom CS croed, floed, loed, moed, roed, snoed, soed, stoed. On th other hand, monosyllabls rhyming with now lose th E (cowd, vowd). If th base-form retains final silent -E in CS, it is of course also retaind in th past tense: hoed, shoed, toed. Exeptions hav to be made with TO showed, towed (cf also E.1.2.3), which becom CS showd, towd, to prevent confusion withTO shoed, toed. (Se W.3 for fuller discussion of CS treatment of -OW endings.) E.3.2.2 Vowel +ES > S: potatoes > potatos Nouns ending in -O add just -S in CS, not -ES, to form their plurals. CS thus resolvs th confusion in TO as to whether nouns ending in -O form their plurals with -ES (TO potatoes), or just -S (TO pianos), or optionally either ending (TO ghettoes, ghettos). CS writes just -S in all these cases (potatos, pianos, ghettos). Similarly, verbs ending in -O which form their present tense inflections with -OES in TO (does, goes, embargoes), lose their E to becom CS dos, gos, embargos. If th base-form itself retains final silent -E in CS, it is of course retaind befor th -S inflection: hoes, toes, shoes. Words ending in final -U in TO (eg, emu), add -S (emus), as do words wich hav final -U after loss of -E in CS (continu, continus). Th inflected CS form of TO argue, venue is preservd from ambiguity with Argus, Venus by being written with a small letter: argus, venus; but th plural of statu dos risk confusion with status, and might therfor exeptionally remain as statues if th context wer thought insufficient to distinguish th meaning. E.3.3 -Y, -EY + -D, -S inflections: replied > replyd, pities > pitis When final -Y, -EY with valus as in reply, survey inflect, they simply add -D, -S in CS, giving replyd, replys (ie, no switch to IE as happens in TO replied, replies; se Chapter 4, §5.3, for fuller discussion of these letter substitutions), and surveyd, surveys. But when final -Y, -EY ar pronounced as in TO pity, volley (which is cut to volly, as explaind in E.2.1.8), their inflected forms change th -Y to -I, giving th CS inflections -ID, -IS. These patterns retain som of th complexity of TO, but also simplify. When a vowel precedes final -Y, TO usually adds -ED, -S (TO volleyed, volleys, surveyed, surveys) regardless of pronunciation; when th

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preceding letter is a consonant, TO usually inflects by changing th -Y to -IE+D, -IE+S (pitied, pities, replied, replies), although th -Y is kept when -ING or possessiv -’S is added: replying and pity’s; in addition, TO allows exeptions such as th alternativ forms honied, monies from honey, money. CS simplifies these TO variations, adding -ID, -IS whenever th final vowel is pronounced as short I, giving such forms as citis, vollis, vollid, chimnis, chimnid, donkis, pitis, pitid, honid, monid, monis. (For discussion of th possessiv -’S inflection of such words, eg, TO pity’s, se Chapter 5, §2.5.) Th possibility of confusion between plural endings with voiced S, as in pitis, and non-inflected endings with voiceless S in such forms as practis, bronchitis is not felt to justify retaining th E in TO pities etc (but se Chapter 6, §2.4.LT for discussion of keeping E in th plural -IES ending to avoid such ambiguity). In genral it is expected that in such cases users will recognize th structur of base-word + inflection; but any problem perceived in th area of final vowel + S needs to be considerd in th same context as final vowel + D (eg, th candied/candid ambiguity) mentiond under E.3.2.1 abov. In noninflected words ending in -IES, such as rabies, series, species (CS speces), th E is kept, partly to indicate a slightly lengthend pronunciation of th last vowel and partly to distinguish these words from inflected forms such as taxis, pitis (otherwise rabbis/rabies risk aquiring th same spellings after consonant simplification by Rule 3). This clarification of th rules of inflection would then resolv that journalist’s hedache, th correct plural of TO Germany: while in TO it vacillates between Germanys and Germanies, th full CS rules allow only Jermnis. For a simpl listing of th endings described in this section, se Table 3 at th end of Rule 2.

Redundant F CS rarely cuts F (though, exept in off, FF is normally simplified). If F in halfpenny is silent, it may be omitted as in TO ha’p’orth (CS hapeny); and if F is considerd silent in TO twelfth, CS may write twelth. However, as discussd in Chapter 4, in genral CS mor often introduces F than it cuts it, substituting F for GH, PH when these ar so pronounced: ruf, fotografy. Redundant G (Se Chapter 4, §4 for CS substitution of J for soft G as in jinjer.) G.1 Silent G G.1.1 Final -GM > -M: diaphragm > diaphram A number of TO spellings contain silent G befor final -M: apothegm, diaphragm, phlegm. CS removes it, giving apothem, diaphram, phlem. In paradigm th G indicates th long valu of th preceding I (ie, not th short valu as in cherubim), but this G can be droppd if Y is substituted for th long valu of IG, giving CS paradym (se Chapter 4, §5 for CS substitution of Y for long IG). When th G is pronounced in derivations (eg, phlegmatic from phlegm), it is kept in CS.

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G.1.2 Initial GN- > N-: gnaw > naw Sevral TO spellings (derived from various sources, nativ English, German, Greek, African) contain silent initial G- befor N. TO gnarl, gnash, gnat, gnaw, gneiss, gnome, gnostic, gnu lose G- to becom CS narl, nash, nat, naw, neiss, nome, nostic, nu. When GN- is pronounced as NY- (/nj/), as in Italian gnocchi and, medially, French cognac, poignant, writers may prefer to keep th G, both for th ske of th sound and for th sake of international compatibility. G.1.3 Final -GN > -N G.1.3.1 Spurious -GN > -N: foreign > forein Silent G in TO foreign, sovereign has no etymological justification, and is cut to giv forein, sovrein (th 17th century poet Milton wrote sovran; cf also French forain, souverain). Sevral TO G.1.3.2 Long vowel + -GN > -N: deign > dein forms contain a long vowel + silent G + final -N: arraign, campaign, champagne, deign, feign, reign. Since th long vowel is otherwise indicated, CS removes th G, giving arrain, campain, champane, dein (this might be respelt to match related disdain), fein, rein. In another group of TO G.1.3.3 -IGN > -YN: se Chapter 4 spellings ending in -GN, a preceding long vowel is in effect indicated by th G. If ambiguity with sin is to be avoided, th G in sign cannot simply be omitted; similarly, th long I needs to be indicated in align, assign, benign, consign, design, ensign, malign, resign. Chapter 4, §5, discusses how these can be respelt alyn, asyn, benyn, consyn, desyn, ensyn, malyn, resyn, syn, as part of th rule for -IG > -Y substitution. Th CS rules do not suggest how silent G could be droppd from impugn, but th form impune would show how it rhyms with tune. This digraph is perhaps th most notorious spelling G.2 GH anomaly of TO, as it is never pronounced according to th standard valus of th letters, and is most often silent. Not merely is it estheticly grotesq, but it seriously hinders th lerning process. It causes many misspellings such as figth for fight, and makes th writing of many common words unnecessarily cumbersom. Rarer words, such as hough, slough, furlough, leve many readers perplexd as to pronunciation, and non-nativ speakers ar prone to mispronunciations such as rhyming dough with now. CS makes evry attempt to remove GH altogether, but to achieve this, sevral strategis ar needed, som going beyond simpl omission (se Chapter 4 for F, Y substitutions). G.2.1 -AIGH- > -AI-: straight > strait CS cuts straight to strait, so removing confusion with TO strait, as in th alternativ forms straightjacket/straitjacket.

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G.2.2 -AUGHT > -AUT: caught > caut In many words AUGH can be cut to AU and so mor clearly show th pronunciation (cf homophones taught/taut). Thus aught, caught, daughter, distraught (unhistorical GH; cf th related distracted), fraught, haughty (another unhistorical GH, as th word derives from French haut), onslaught, naught, naughty, slaughter, taught becom caut, dauter, distraut, fraut, hauty, onslaut, naut, nauty, slauter, taut. For TO draught, th alternativ draft is alredy used in American and in som senses in British spelling, and is adopted as standard by CS. For respelling laugh, laughter as laf, laftr, se Chapter 4, §3.1. G.2.3 EIGH > EI: eight > eit TO eight, freight, inveigh, neigh, neighbour, sleigh, weigh, weight becom CS eit, freit, invei (unless invey is preferrd, to parallel convey, purvey, survey, th GH being unhistorical), nei, neibour, slei, wei, weit. (For height, sleight, se E.2.1.4 abov and G.4 below). Th anomalous sound-symbol correspondence of th TH in TO eighth is even mor apparent in CS eith. Since English words do not normally end in -EI, th forms ney, wey might be preferrd to th simpl cut forms nei, wei. This proposed substitution is G.2.4 -IGH > -Y: se Chapter 4 discussd in full in Chapter 4, §5, but cf also Y.3. Th development from erlier drigh, fligh, sligh to TO dry, fly, sly (though GH survives in related drought, flight, sleight) suggests th same change for th parallel -IGH forms, many of which end in -IGHT: byt, blyt, bryt, delyt (although its GH is unhistorical, th word being related to delicious, not to light), flyt, fryt, fyt, hy, hyt, lyt, myt, nyt (for both knight, night), plyt, ryt (for both right, wright), slyt, sprytly, sy, syt, thy (from thigh, despite ambiguity with th archaic possessiv ajectiv thy), tyt. These forms will not be used in this Handbook until Chapter 4, §5. G.2.5 OUGH, th most irregular use of irregular GH G.2.5.1 -OUGH > -O: though > tho TO borough, furlough, thorough, though becom CS boro, furlo, thoro, tho, som of these forms being alredy widely used in informal writing. To avoid confusion with th verb to do, TO dough keeps its H in CS doh (which also becoms th standard CS form for th musical note). G.2.5.2 -OUGH > -U: through > thru TO through becoms (after losing O — se O.4.2) CS thru — a common TO abbreviation alredy. G.2.5.3 -OUGH > -OU: drought > drout TO bough, slough (= muddy depression), sough, drought becom CS bou, slou, sou (cf thou), drout. For plough, CS adopts th American (and former alternativ British) spelling plow, and spellings with -OW might generally be preferrd for TO bough, sough and even slough, provided TO slow became CS slo (se W.3). G.2.5.4 OUGHT > OT: ought > ot TO bought, brought, fought, nought, ought, sought, thought, wrought clearly contain redundant letters, but, apart from th G, it is not self-evident which should be cut. Th

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forms bot, brot, fot, ot, sot, thot ar th most economical, and giv th vowel th same valu as in or and, in som accents, off, as well as in th proposed CS form brod for TO broad (se A.6). However, many non-Scottish speakers may dislike th implied rhym of ought with hot and especially th merger of th pairs not/nought, rot/wrought. One way of avoiding these effects would be to keep th H, giving boht, broht, foht, noht, roht (or even to keep th UH, giving bouht, rouht etc); or alternativly, th fact that these words rhym with caught, fraught, taught (naught is th US variant for nought alredy) might justify th forms baut, braut, faut, naut, aut, raut, saut, thaut. This Handbook and CS dictionary will, however, recommend th shortest forms bot, brot etc, but use th American variant naught as th basis for CS naut, rather than ambiguous not. G.2.6 -GH > -F: se Chapter 4 In a few common words, -GH is pronounced as F, and after cutting th O or U according to pronunciation, CS changes chough, clough, cough, enough, rough, slough (= shed snakeskin), tough, trough to chuf, cluf, cof, enuf, ruf, sluf, tuf, trof (se O.4.3 for loss of O, U.3.3 for loss of U, Chapter 4, §3.1 for GH > F substitution). G.2.7 GH > K: hough > hok Hough is also spelt hock in TO, which CS cuts to hok, to match its rhyms lok, sok etc. Th form hiccough was G.2.8 GH > P: hiccough > hiccup introduced as an alternativ to hiccup, which was wrongly believed to derive from cough. CS spells it only with th original P. In proper names, GH creates even G.2.9 GH in proper names mor problems for th reader than in ordinary words, giving very littl idea how to pronounce such forms as Greenhalgh, Langbaurgh, Lysaght, Houghton, Coughton. Proper names would require a variety of changes to improve their spelling: in Shillelagh th GH would be omitted, in Keighley it would be respelt TH, and Mexborough, Middlesbrough, Edinburgh might all adopt th same suffix -BRO. Redundant H H.1 Silent H H.1.1 Initial H- > -: honest > onest Initial H is silent in som words, and is then cut: TO heir, honest, honour, hour becom eir, onest (cf Italian onesto), onour, our. Americans might wish to cut herb to erb. H.1.2 Consonant +H > consonant + -: exhaust > exaust Th letter H is silent after th prefix EX-, and is then cut to giv exale, exaust, exibit, exilarate, exort, exume. Th same cut is made after T in posthumous,

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giving postumus (this H is probably spurious anyway — se Latin postumus, German postum) and after P in shepherd, giving sheperd (that H has long been lost from th surnames Sheppard, Coward [ -A: cheetah > cheeta TO often spells words of Arabic, Hebrew or Indian origin with final -AH, altho som hav alternativs without H. Thus hookah, chutzpah, Deb(o)ra(h), hallelujah, Jehovah, Messiah, Sara(h), cheetah, howdah, veranda(h), and similarly savanna(h). CS cuts th H in all such words, giving hooka, chutzpa, Debra, halleluja (se also J), Jehova, Messia, Sara, cheeta, howda, veranda. Th letter H is widely used in H.2 Redundant H in digraphs digraphs in English, and is not redundant in CH as in chew, SH as in she, nor in TH as in this and thin. However, when CH has th valu of K, and after many other consonants, th H is often redundant and can be cut. H.2.1 ‘Greek’ CH > often C: chaos > caos This CH, when used to transcribe th Greek letter chi ( ), is pronounced as K in English, and for this purpos dos not in itself require th H. So TO chaos, character, chorus, chrysalis, ochre, psychology, school, scholar, stomach, technical etc, becom caos (Italian/Spanish caos), caracter (French caractère), corus, crysalis, ocre (French ocre), psycology, scool, scolar, stomac, tecnical. Ambiguity arises with coir, as th CS form of choir (historically spelt quire), tho TO coir is rare enuf for this perhaps not to matter. It will be noticed that CS cuts th spurious H from th musical term chord, so restoring th link with th related concord, discord etc. However, since befor E, I, Y th letter C is normally pronounced as S in English, CS dos not cut th H befor those front vowels. For instance, altho th H in TO architect, monarchical appears misleading when set beside archbishop, cut forms such as *arcitect, *monarcical appear misleading without H (*monarcical appears to rhym with farcical). And while H in TO bacchanal, monarch, stomach can be cut to giv baccanal, monarc, stomac, an awkward inconsistency arises from th need to retain H in derivativs such as bacchic, monarchy, stomachic. Likewise, altho TO psychology can be lose H to becom psycology, TO psychiatry must keep its H. Similar considerations apply to Italian loans, since Italian uses H after C specificly to show its valu as K befor front vowels; for this reason CS cannot cut H in, for instance, chiaroscuro, chianti

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(even if it wer thot justifiabl to flout th international spelling standards such words represent). On th other hand, in both ‘Greek’ and ‘Italian’ words, th combination SCH is less subject to th abov restriction. Since CS has alredy cut redundant C from TO forms like scent, scene, sceptre, science, scythe (se C.3), but keeps it in sceptic (tho preferring American skeptic), such forms as CS sceme, scerzo, scizoid from TO scheme, scherzo, schizoid appear acceptabl. In th long term, th only simpl, global solution to th problems of CH pronounced as K is wholesale respelling, using th letter S always for soft C, and K for hard C, so producing contrasts like farsikal/monarkikal. However, such changes go well beyond what is envisaged for CS, tho their potential is discussd in Chapter 6. H.2.2 Other CHs: yacht > yat Th sixteenth century spelling ake was respelt ache (as explaind in Samuel Johnson’s Dictionary) in th mistaken belief it should contain a ‘Greek’ CH. Clearly CS cannot cut this H if confusion with TO ace is to be avoided, and th long-term solution to this unique anomaly would be to restor traditional English ake. By contrast, dachshund, fuchsia ar of German origin, but since English pronunciation so distorts th sound valus of th consonant strings involving C (CHSH, CHS), th Hs hav becom redundant, and final CS can write dacsnd, fucia. Dutchderived yacht loses both C (cf C.5) and H, giving CS yat, which ceses to be a unique spelling and matches th symbol-sound correspondence of what, squat, swat. H.2.3 GH > G: ghost > gost As a nativ English digraph, th GH in words such as weigh, through, cough is removed in CS; se G.2 abov for simpl omission, and Chapter 4, §3, for substitution by F. However, GH also occurs initially in a small group of spellings which it is believed Caxton’s Dutch compositors imported from their own language in th 15th century: ghastly, gherkin, ghost; these all lose H in CS, to giv gastly, gerkin, gost. Italian uses H after G befor E, I to indicate th hard valu of th G, a device found occasionally in loan words in English such as ghetto, spaghetti; but since H dos not hav this hardening function in English and th hard-soft ambiguity of G is removed in final CS by G > J substitution anyway (se Chapter 4, §4), this Italian H can also be cut in CS, giving getto, spagetti. (Se H.2.1 abov for th reason why th same cut of hardening H cannot be made in ‘Italian’ CH in words like chianti.) H.2.4 PH > F and Chapter 4, §3.

‘Greek’ PH can be replaced by F in CS. Se also P.7

H.2.5 RH > R: rhythm > rythm ‘Greek’ RH is cut to R, producing rapsody, retoric, rumatism, rinoceros, rododendron, rubarb, rym, rythm, hemorrage, catarr, myrr (cf Italian rapsodia, retorica, reumatico, rinoceronte, rima, ritmo etc; similarly in Spanish, Portuguese and th Scandinavian languages).

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H.2.6 TH > T: thyme > tym CS cuts H from Thames, thyme, giving Tames (cf French Tamise; final CS Tams), tym. Many lerners find it hard to H.2.7 WH- > W-: which > wich distinguish initial WH- and W- (typical misspellings ar *whent, *wether, *whorthwile), altho in som accents a distinction is herd, with WH- voiceless and aspirated as /hw/, but W- voiced and non-aspirated. In view of this confusion, and applying its customary principl of opting for th most economical spelling that represents a common pronunciation, CS ceses to distinguish WH-, W-, and normally cuts th H wherever th preceding W is pronounced. (Th H is of course kept wen pronounced as in who, whom, whose, whole, whooping, whore. In these words it is th W that is cut, giving ho, hos, hom, hole, hooping, hor. Se W.1.1.) Cutting H in WH givs th following spellings for th caracteristic grammatical words: wat, wen, wence, wether, wich, wile, wy. Users may, however, hesitate about reducing TO were/where to th same CS form wer (giving rise to such phrases as wer wer you?), altho in som accents TO where/were ar homophones. In this Handbook and th CS dictionary th H will be kept in th unique CS form wher (se E.1.1.12.1 for further discussion of this point). Other forms resulting from th loss of this H include wack, wale, warf, weat, weedl, weel, welk, welp, werry, wet, wey, weze, wiff, Wig, wilst, wim, wimper, wip, wir(r) (but se E.2.1.4 for th danger of ambiguity arising from a merger with weir, if that lost its E), wirl, wisk, wisker, wisky, wisper, wist, wistl, wite, wither, wittl, wiz(z), worl. A few words spelt diffrently in TO hav th same form in CS following this loss of H: whet/wet, whether/weather/wether (final CS wethr), which/witch (CS wich), Whig/wig, while/wile. We may incidentally here note that Swedish has made a parallel cut of H, writing val ‘wale’, vete ‘weat’, vit ‘wite’ wher Danish/Norwegian still hav H in their corresponding hval, hvede/hvete, hvid/hvit. Th letter H also occurs H.2.8 Exotic aspiration: khaki > kaki after various consonants to transcribe words borrowd from other languages, often to represent a phonetic aspiration that dos not occur in English. It may then be difficult to decide wether th H can be cut or not. Clearly H is necessary in th ZH digraph to transcribe Russian ; (Brezhnev, Zhivago), but it is not clear that H is needed in KH to transcribe Russian X when spelling Khrushchov, since English speakers usually pronounce th KH simply as K. Similarly many Asian and African names may be spelt with H that is not pronounced by nativ English speakers. If we consider jodhpurs, khaki as fully assimilated into th vocabulary of English, we can write jodpurs, kaki (cf also French kaki); but names such as Marathi, Luthuli, Thai should perhaps keep th H to reflect their pronunciation in th language of origin, altho English speakers often mispronounce them as tho they containd th common English digraph TH.

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H.3 Exeptions For a variety of reasons, medial H befor a vowel has somtimes fallen silent, altho th effect of cutting it may occasionally be undesirabl. In TO forehead, for instance, pronunciation with and without H is herd, but CS writes forhed to preserv th link with hed. Similarly, silent H should probably not be cut from vehement, vehicl (altho Italian offers th models of veemente, veicolo), as a misleading vowel digraph would otherwise result (*veement, *veicl); furthermor, som speakers sound th H in vehicl. Th alternativ of replacing this H by an apostrophe (ve’ement, ve’icl) would introduce a novel element into th writing system, wich CS genrally tries to avoid (indeed, CS otherwise gretly reduces th TO use of apostrophes, as explaind in Chapter 5, §2). Redundant I I.1 Medial I I.1.1 Misleading digraphs: friend > frend Th uniquely anomalous forms friend, foreign, sovereign lose I to becom frend, foren, soveren. If TO leisure is deemd to rym with CS plesur, its CS form will be lesur; and for American pronunciation ryming with TO seizure, CS sezur provides a good parallel for CS lesur. TO heifer becoms final CS hefr. Th forms dew, new, pew etc show I in TO view is redundant (CS vew). TO species/faeces align as CS speces/feces. Altho British and American pronunciations of th first syllabl of TO lieutenant differ radically, th I is redundant in both accents and therfor cut, giving leutenant (cf German Leutnant). I.1.2 AI-E > A-E: praise > prase TO appraise, baize, maize, malaise, migraine, moraine, plaice, praise, raise, waive indicate th long valu of A twice, once with th digraph AI and again with th ‘magic’ E. In som cases th E could be cut (maiz, waiv), but elswher this is not possibl (*plaic, *rais), and for th sake of consistency al lose I insted (altho th non-obvious cognate waif dos provide an argument for cutting TO waive to *waiv). In this way CS aligns these forms with a commoner TO pattern (as in face, phase, gave, gaze), giving apprase, baze, malase, maze, migrane, morane, place, prase, rase (raze, also rase in TO, is only raze in CS), wave. Howevr, th recent French loan aide loses final E, to align with aid. EI-E, IE-E > E-E: receive > receve, believe > beleve I.1.3 These common TO patterns also indicate th long vowel twice, with th digraph EI or IE as well as ‘magic’ E, and th I can again usually be cut. TO niece, piece, besiege, liege, hygiene, receive, achieve, believe, seize, frieze then becom CS nece, pece, besege, lege, hygene, receve (cf French recevoir), acheve (cf French achever), beleve, seze, freze (cf eve, trapeze, and se A.2.2.1 for TO peace also cut to CS pece, A.2.2.3 for brethe,

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A.2.2.4 for leve, E.2.1.3 for flece, Grece, sleve, sethe, breze, freze). It will be noted that, despite th cut of -EIVE and -IEVE to -EVE, th related nouns conceit, deceit, receipt (CS receit), belief cannot lose their corresponding I, since *recet, *belef would be misred with a short E. In th case of TO besiege, liege, hygiene th substitution of J for soft G (se Chapter 4, §4) givs beseje, leje, hyjene. If proper names ar cut, th TO alternativs Sheila/Shelagh align as CS Shela. Because of their alternativ pronunciations, either, neither keep th EI digraph intact (but lose their second E by Rule 2); and CS ceilng similarly keeps its EI in order to cut its -ING by Rule 2. TO medieval (CS medeval) loses I to align with its cognate ryms coeval, primeval, unless th word is analyzd as having four syllabls with I-E in hiatus, thus medi-eval. Cutting I in heir, their givs CS I.1.4 -EIR > -ER: their > ther er, ther (se A.2.4.2 pear — per, E.1.3 there — ther for parallel cuts). Th digraph OI as in join has a I.1.5 -OI- usually retaind standard sound valu and is not normally cut. However, porpoise, tortoise ar deemd to rym with purpos rather than with noise and ar cut to CS porpos, tortos (final E here being exeptionally cut after S — se E.1.1.13 abov; cf rinoceros). TO choir dos not lose I, being deemd to rym with ‘French’ OI in th last syllabl of reservoir (CS coir; but se H.2.1 for comment on ambiguity of TO choir/coir). I.1.6 -IU > U: juice > juce Wen UI has th valu of long U and th syllabl ends in ‘magic’ E, th I is cut. TO juice, sluice, bruise, cruise thus becom CS juce (cf French jus), sluce, bruse, cruse (cf truce, ruse). Nuisance similrly becoms nusance; applying Rule 2 rather than Rule 1 would produce th alternativ *nuisnce, but (as confirmd undr Rule 2, §1.6.1.XN) th I is felt to be mor anomalous and mor troublesom than th A, and is therfor th preferrd cut. Th I must be kept in fruit, recruit, suit in order to distinguish ther long U from th short U in but. Wen I is elided, it is I.1.7 Elision of I: business > busness cut, giving CS busness (cf Welsh busnes), medcin, parlamnt. I.2 Listed under Rule 2. rather than by Rule 1.

Th following I-cuts ar made by Rule 2,

I.2.1 Fertile — fertl American pronunciation suggests cutting I in fertile (CS fertl) and in similar words listed at E.1.1.8.1. I.2.2 Representing post-accentual shwa In unstressd syllabls occurring after th main stress, as in fossil, victim, raisin, cushion, fashion, parishioner, Yorkshire, admiral. Som of these might alternativly be considerd as falling under I.1.7 abov.

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I.3 After G > J substitution: se Chapter 4, §4 If soft G is respelt J, then I is cut wher it previously chiefly servd to show preceding soft G, as in contagion, contagious, legion, region, religion, religious, wich then becom contajon, contajous, lejon, rejon, relijon, relijous. I.4 Y/I preferences A number of words hav alternativ TO spellings with I or Y. CS then recommends I wen th vowel has short valu (gipsy rather than *gypsy), and Y wen th vowel has long valu (tyro rather than *tiro); for full discussion of these preferences, se Y.3. For respelling I by Y in inflections and in -IGH, se Chapter 4, §5, and in this chapter E.3.2, E.3.3 and G.2.4.

Redundant J Th letter J is almost never redundant in TO, so is scarcely cut. However, CS prefers th spelling alleluia without J to hallelujah with J (se also H.1.3), and marijuana can becom mariuana. For th potential of J for regularizing th spelling of soft G, DG by letter substitution, se Chapter 4, §4. Redundant K K.1 KN- > N-: knob > nob Words written with initial silent Kbefor N in TO lose th K in CS. Th TO forms knack, knacker, knapsack, knave, knead, knee, knell, knew, knickers, knife, knight, knit, knob, knock, knot, knout, know, knowledge, known, knuckle ar then written nack, napsack, nave, nead, ne, nell, new, nickers, nife, night, nit, nob, nock, not, nout, nown, nuckl. In th process, mergers occur with TO nave, new, nife, night, nit, not, and th loss of redundant W produces further shortening to no for know, noledge for knowledge (final CS nolej; but that K is naturally kept in aknolej, wher it is still pronounced). Users may hesitate at som of these new homographs, but th advantages of regularity and economy ar regarded as paramount for CS. K.2 -CK > -: blackguard > blagard Silent medial -CK- can be cut from blackguard, Cockburn, giving final CS blagrd, Coburn.

Redundant L L.1 -OULD > -UD: could > cud Th L is redundant in could, should, would, but CS also cuts th O, giving cud, shud, wud (se O.4.4). Despite th apparent rym with TO cud, mud etc, it is felt these short forms ar th best. Th letter U is inherently ambiguous in CS as well as in TO, but th patterns of sound-symbol correspondence for th vowel letters in such TO forms as put, pudding, cloud, shroud, shoulder, gourd suggest a basis of regularity for preferring cud, shud, wud to, say, coud, woud, shoud (indeed, in TO,

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OUD never has th valu of -OULD in would, etc). Th L in could has no

etymological basis anyway, and th TO spelling tends to be confused with cloud by som beginning readers. A mor radical reform than CS might prefer to write cwd, hwd, wwd (se Chapter 6 §??? for discussion of this idea) for these words, but such a substitution is not contemplated for CS. L.2 AL- > A-: salmon > samon Insofar as th L in almond, salmon is silent, it is cut, giving amond, samon (cf French amande, saumon), altho som speakers pronounce L in almond. In final CS, th name Malcolm becoms Malcm. Sevral groups of common words, exemplified L.3 Silent L retaind by half, talk, calm, folk, contain silent L, but it is doutful wether th pronunciation of th preceding vowel is adequatly represented if th L is cut, and in som cases actual ambiguity results. Pending mor radical respelling of such words (eg, as haaf, tauk, caam, foak or fohk), th L is therfor kept. Insofar as it indicates a non-standard valu for th preceding vowel, it may be considerd to hav a kind of ‘magic’ function. L.3.1 -ALF, -ALVE not cut Calf, half might be cut to *caf, *haf, but ambiguity arises if L is omitted from calve, halve, producing *cave, *have. It is tru that TO have is written hav in CS, but th -ING form havng wud still be ambiguous if halving wer also cut to *havng. L.3.2 -ALK not cut If L wer cut from chalk, stalk, talk, walk, th special valu of th A wud not be shown. This valu is often found with following L, as in all, stall, tall, wall, salt, alter, but in chalk, stalk, talk, walk th L has fallen silent. Furthermor, actual ambiguity wud arise without this L (*chak, *stak, *tak, *wak), since by Rule 3 (simplifying doubld consonants) CS cuts stack, tack, whack to stak, tak, wak. Less serious ambiguity wud arise from L.3.3 -ALM not cut cutting L in alms, balm, calm, palm, psalm; but th contrast with am, cam, Pam, Sam wud be lost. Without L, ther is no longer any indication that th preceding A may hav a special, lengthend valu. It is therfor recommended that L be kept in these words. L.3.4 -OLK not cut Th L is needed in folk, yolk if th long O is to be distinguishd from th short O in words like TO dock, lock, wich Rule 3 cuts to CS dok, lok. L.3.5 Colonel Th L in colonel (formerly coronel) may be taken to indicate th special valu of th preceding O, and is not cut. (Se O.6 below and Rule 2 for full CS colnl.)

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Redundant M: mnemonic > nemonic Initial M- in th Greek root for memory (mnemonic, Mnemosyne) is silent, and can be cut. After th prefix A- wher this M is pronounced (amnesia, amnesty), it cannot be cut. Redundant N: condemn > condem CS cuts silent word-final N after M, giving autum, colum, condem, dam, hym, with inflected forms such as colums, condemd. Th N is not cut wen pronounced in derivativs such as autumnal, columnar, condemnation, damnation, hymnal. Wether th N is cut in columnnist must depend on pronunciation. Redundant O occurs especially in vowel digraphs. O.1 EO > E: people > peple Th following TO forms contain redundant O after short E: jeopardy, Leonard, leopard; and after long E: people. Without O they becom jepardy, Lenard, lepard, peple, all of wich mor clearly represent th appropriat valu of E. (Se Rule 2, 1.6.1.XL for th long E in peple.) Th verb enfeoff cannot be cut in this way, since th O is needed to indicate th long valu of th preceding E; but it might ideally be respelt to match its noun fief, giving enfief. British spellings (especially medical O.2 OE > E: foetus > fetus terms) such as foetus, oedema, oesophagus (similarly oecumenical) lose ther O to match th American spellings fetus, edema, esophagus, ecumenical. Similarly, British manoeuvre is cut to maneuvr to align mor closely with American maneuver, wich itself is cut to maneuvr by Rule 2 (se also E.1.1.12.2 and E.2.1.9). CS makes th same cut even wen American spelling dos not alredy do so: TO oedipal, Oedipus becom edipal, Edipus. Th particular anomaly of soft C befor O in TO coelacanth is overcom by removal of this O, giving CS celacanth. O.3 OO > O: blood > blod If th standard valus of OO ar considerd to be as in good and food, ther ar clear anomalis in TO brooch, blood, flood. If brooch is not merged with its cognate broach, it might be cut to broch by analogy with long O in gross, roll. Blood, flood can be cut to CS blod, flod, by analogy with th short O in son, com, mother etc. Th disadvantage of such cuts is that they suggest ryms with CS boch, rod etc, but they ar neverthless recommended for CS as they remove a blatant irregularity of TO and ar mor economical. Less controversial ar CS dor, flor, whos spelling is therby distinguishd from moor, poor. CS prefers th TO alternativ tabu to taboo, both for its economy and because of th internationally accepted valu of U, as opposed to th uniquely English and phoneticly anomalous valu of OO.

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O.4 OU > U O.4.1 you > u, your > yr TO you dos not rym with thou and can be cut to yu (se Y.1 for th further cut to CS u). Th possessivs your, yours do not rym with our, ours, and wud benefit from being cut; but ther is no standard pronunciation to show wich letters ar redundant: som speakers pronounce your as a homophone of yore, others as a homophone of ewer, a variation wich makes both th possibl cut forms yor, yur problematic. CS therfor prefers th commonly used abbreviations yr, yrs, wich can be distinguishd from th abbreviations for year, years by giving th latter full stops (1 yr., 2 yrs.). It has been objected that CS shud keep th visual link between you/your, but since I/my, she/her and we/our show even less of a link, it is judgd to be unimportant. O.4.2 TO OU for long U: through > thru Souvenir, troupe ar cut to suvenir, trupe (cf superior, dupe) and through to thru (cf TO true — CS tru). However, reducing OU to U is often impossibl if th long valu of U is not otherwise indicated: CS can hardly giv coup, ghoul, group, soup, tour, wound (noun) th same vowel spelling as in cup, full/gull, sup, fur, fund. But since th ending -UTH always has long valu for U in TO (truth, Ruth), TO youth can be cut to CS yuth (se also E.2.5 for TO sleuth — CS sluth). TO route poses a similar dilemma as TO schedule (se C.4), with diffrent accents implying diffrent cuts: for Americans it is often a homophone of rout and as such shud lose its final -E, wile for British speakers it ryms with brute, and shud lose its O (British TO therfor tends to keep th final E in th form routeing). If a standard spelling is to be kept for all accents, it may seem that th full original French spelling with both O and E should be retaind. Either way, CS Rule 2 produces distinctions not found in th inflected forms in TO: TO inflects rout as routs, routing, routed, and route as routes, rout(e)ing, routed; CS, by th abov proposal, wud inflect rout as routs, routng, routd, and route as routes, routing, routed. Couple, courage, O.4.3 TO OU for short U: touch > tuch double, nourish, southern, touch, trouble, young lose O, becoming cupl, curage, dubl, nurish, suthern, tuch, trubl, yung (cf TO much, lung, and full CS supl, bubl for TO supple, bubble); similarly rough, tough becom ruf, tuf. Se Chapter 4, §4, for GE > J and §3 for GH > F substitution. O.4.4 -OULD > -UD: could > cud CS cud, shud, wud (se L.1 for discussion).

Could, should, would becom

O.4.5 -OUR- > -UR-: scourge > scurge Courtesy, scourge becom curtesy, scurge (final CS scurj; cf TO curtsy, urge). O.4.6 -OUS > -US: enormous > enormus Th common ajectiv ending -OUS is pronounced exactly as final -US (TO callous/callus ar homophones), and it always loses its O in CS: ambiguus, callus, curius, enormus, monstrus. A number of words ar therby restord to ther exact Latin forms: anxius, dubius, exiguus, pius, nefarius, obnoxius, vacuus, varius.

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O.5 moustache > mustach British moustache is cut to American mustache; for th further cut to CS mustach, se E.1.1.17. TO colonel loses its second O (se also L.3.5 O.6 colonel > colnel and Rule 2, wich givs final CS colnl). O.7 Loss of post-accentual shwa O by Rule 2 For omission of O in unstressd endings such as petrol, atom, button, doctor, glamour, se Rule 2. O.8 Word and two not cut It has been suggested that th anomalus valu of O in TO word, work, world, worm, worse, worship, worst, wort, worth, whorl cud be overcom by cutting th O, giving *wrd etc. In unstressd position similar cuts ar made by Rule 2, as wen TO foreword, forward ar distinguishd as CS forword, forwrd. However, to cut a stressd vowel letter is a far mor drastic procedur (th case of CS yr for TO your being exeptional, acceptabl partly because th word is often unstressd), and it is not recommended for CS. It has also been suggested that th numeral two cud be cut to just tw (th letter W having originated as UU); but this also seems too drastic, being at variance with all other English spelling patterns, and so is not adopted in CS either. Further discussion of th potential of W for use as a vowel letter will be found in Chapter 6, §1.5.

Redundant P P.1 Silent initial P: psalm > salm Silent initial P occurs mainly in words of Greek origin befor N, S, T, as in TO pneumatic, psalm, psalter, pseudo-, psittacosis, psoriasis, psychology, Ptolemy, ptomaine, but also in one word of Gaelic origin, ptarmigan. In all these cases initial P is cut, giving numatic, salm, salter, sudo-, sittacosis, soriasis, sycology, Tolemy, tomain, tarmigan (th latter restoring th initial T of th original Gaelic tarmachan). MP + consonant > M + consonant: empty > emty Wen P P.2 occurs between M and another consonant, it can be cut, since it adds nothing to th pronunciation, hence th TO alternativs for th homophones Hampstead/Hamstead, Thompson/Thomson, Tompkins/Tomkins, sempstress/ seamstress; likewise, dremt is pronounced with as much (or as littl) of a P as empty (for wich Old English æmtig had no P). CS therfor writes consumtion, emty, exemt, redemtion, semstress, sumtuus, temt etc (cf Welsh temtio ‘to temt’).

P.3 receipt > receit Dr Johnson inconsistently decided on grounds of usage that P shud be kept in receipt, but not in conceit, deceit. CS harmonizes all thre by cutting th P and writing receit (cf French recette).

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P.4 sapphire > saphire Th first P in sapphire is cut, giving saphire (cf French saphir), and with PH respelt as F (se Chapter 4, §3), th final CS form safire. In a few P.5 Elided P befor consonant: cupboard > cubord words P is silent befor a consonant (or assimilated by it), as in raspberry, cupboard. Cutting givs rasberry, cubord (final CS rasbry, cubrd). P.6 Silent French -P: coup > c(o)u In a few French loans P is silent: corps, coup. Unless it is felt important to preserv international compatibility, cutting immediatly givs cors (se S.2 for cutting final S as well), cou — and if P is cut from coup, th O can also be cut, but not otherwise (CS cou or cu, but not cup). P.7 PH > F: se Chapter 4, §3 for th substitution of F for PH wen pronounced as F. This change applies mainly to words of Greek derivation, but to a few others too, such as nephew, sulphur (alredy American sulfur), typhoon, but not to words in wich th P and H hav ther own standard valu, such as uphold, and TO shepherd (by Rule 2, full CS sheprd). Som PH words wer alredy written with F in Middl English (TO pheasant was Middl English fesant; cf Welsh ffesant), and TO fantasy has in th 20th century reverted to its erlier F after som centuris as phantasy.

Redundant Q Alphabetically th letter Q is superfluus, since its sound can be represented by standard K. A few words alredy hav alternativ forms with C or K, such as American bark, check, licorice for British barque, cheque, liquorice, and lackey, racket for lacquey, racquet. CS recommends forms without Q: bark, check, licorice, lacky, racket (final CS chek, licrice, raket). In som words Q is followd by silent U (eg, lacquer, conquer, quay, technique), wich CS cuts (se U 2.2). Another group of words loses final -UE (masq, baroq, mosq — se E.1.1.11 for loss of this final E). Redundant R R.1 R not normally cut Th letter R is rarely entirely omitted wher it occurs in TO, altho RR may be simplified to R. It is tru that most speakers in England and th suthern hemisphere normally only pronounce R if it precedes a vowel (they ar th so-calld ‘non-rotic’ speakers). However, because of th probably mor numerus (rotic) speakers who normally do pronounce R wherever it occurs, and because even non-rotic speakers vary in ther practis (in th phrase mother and father, they mostly pronounce R in mother but not in father, because th former precedes a vowel but th latter dos not), CS dos not normally cut single R.

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R.2 R + shwa + R It might neverthless be helpful to cut one R from words in wich an unstressed vowel between two Rs is cut by Rule 2, §1.4.RR, since these patterns cause considrabl spelling difficulty in TO. Exampls ar arbitrary, contrary, February, funerary, honorary, itinerary, literary, temporary wich cud be cut to arbitry, contry, Febry, funery, onry, itinry, litry, tempry. Th long I in library makes cutting any letters in that word rather mor dubius: altho libry represents a common pronunciation, th visual parallel with litry with its short I wud be anomalus; th form libry is neverthless recommended for its economy.

Redundant S S.1 Traditional silent S: isle > ile Th letter S is redundant in a few long-establishd words: aisle, isle, island, demesne (th S in island, demesne is unetymological). In CS these ar written ile (cf French île), iland, demene. S.2 Final silent French S: debris > debri Sevral modern French loans end in silent S: chamois, chassis, corps, debris, fracas. CS can write chamoi (th goat) or chami (th lether), chassi, cor, debri, fraca, unless a decision of principl wer taken to respect international spelling forms. S.3 -SE > -ZE: organise > organize Wenever TO offers a choice between th endings -SE and -ZE (often contrasting British and American conventions), CS prefers th latter: raze, organize, analyz, cozy. It wud be temting to take this regularization to its limit, and respell with -IZE all words ryming with prize (eg, *advize, *advertize, *compromize, *surprize, *wize — cf TO wizard), but th CS rules do not provide for this. S.4 -’S > -S: se Chapter 5 for th simplified rule for th use of apostrophe befor S in CS. S.5 SC- > C-: conscious > concius If, as suggested in C.7, SC representing th sound of SH can be considered for cutting to C, we find S can be cut to giv CS concience, concius and similarly from fuchsia to giv fucia. Elswher SC appears to hav th function of a dubl consonant, indicating a preceding short vowel, and th S is therfor kept in fascist (contrast th long A in racist), aquiesce (despite aquiesd), final CS remnisce (despite remnisng), and luscius (th Roman name Lucius, with its long U and its C pronounced as S, provides a counterpattern here).

Redundant T T.1 -TCH > -CH: pitch > pich Th letter T is redundant befor CH and cut so that pitch, witch, hutch parallel rich, which, much, duchess. This cut produces thach, hachet (cf French hachette), fech, dich, boch, cluch, bucher (cf French boucher), picher (by Rule 2 then CS buchr, pichr) etc.

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T.2 -FT- > -F-: often > ofn After F in often, soften th T is normally silent (tho somtimes pronounced in often), but can only be cut after applying Rule 2, to giv ofn, sofn (th forms *ofen, *sofen wud hav th long vowel of open). In som words T is redundant after T.3 -ST- > -S-: whistle > wisl S. Thus whistle can be written parallel to missal, without T (final CS misl, wisl), and not like pistol, whos T is pronounced. Writing -SL insted of -STLgivs casl, nesl, pesl, tresl, wresl, brisl, episl, grisl, thisl, mislto, wisl, aposl, josl, throsl, busl, husl, rusl; and similarly befor -EN: chasen, hasen, fasen, crisen, glisen, lisen, moisen (but Rule 2 cuts th last 5 further to fasn, crisn, glisn, lisn, moisn). Ambiguity arises between TO bristling with voiceless S and brisling with voiced S (final CS brislng for both; spelling th fish brizlng wud preserv th distinction). It wud be possibl to cut th genrally elided T in *Crismas, *posman, *waiscoat etc if it wer thot unnecessary to preserv th morphemes Christ, post, waist. CS prefers th form bosun to boatswain. Modern German writes Quarz, Walzer for erlier Quartz, Waltzer wich enterd English with T (quartz, waltz), but to cut th T here wud produce wat is for English a non-standard symbol-sound correspondence. Silent T occurs after T.4 Final silent French T: depot > depo vowels in French loans and can be cut to giv th following forms: depo, morgage, popourri, trai. It cannot, however, be cut in final -ET as in ballet, beret, bouquet, buffet, cabaret, chalet, crochet, croquet, parquet, ricochet, valet because it here effectivly indicates th sound valu of th preceding E. A ‘reformd’ French spelling, such as ballé etc, wud resolv th uncertainty of symbol-sound correspondence in these words, but th T of valet at least is often pronounced in English.

Redundant U U.1 Aberrant valus not cut Th letter U has aberrant valus in a few words, such as th noun minut (valu modified to short I), th verb bury (pronounced as short E), and th ajectiv busy (and its derivativ busness), wher U also has th valu of short I. Th U is not redundant in these words and not cut in CS. U.2 U with consonant > following consonants in TO:

Th letter U may be cut wen used with th

U.2.1 After G U.2.1.1 Hard GU+A, O > GA, GO: guard > gard In guard, guarantee (cf French garde, garantie), languor U is cut, giving CS gard, garantee, langor (by Rule 2, CS langr). However, wen U has th valu of W after G, as in guano, guava, languid, languish, it is of course kept.

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U.2.1.2 Hard GU+E, I, Y > GE, GI, GY: guest > gest Befor th front vowels E, I, Y in TO guelder, guer(r)illa, guess, guest, guide, guile, guillotine, guilt, guinea, (dis)guise, guitar, guy, th U servs to show th hard valu of preceding G. However, guild, guilder alredy hav alternativ forms without U in gild, gilder, and guilt has a homophone in TO gilt. By analogy, therfor, th other words can shed ther silent U after G, giving gelder, gerilla, gess, gest, gide, gile, gillotine, gilt, ginea, (dis)gise, gitar, gy. Any long-term ambiguity vis-à-vis TO forms beginning with soft G (gem, gin, ginger, gymnast) is removed (as explaind in Chapter 4, §4) by respelling all soft Gs as J; so for instance, if guest lost U, th CS form gest wud no longer appear as th first syllabl of TO gesture, since that wud be written jestur. But in th short term th loss of U in these words may appear somwat disturbing by comparison with TO patterns. U.2.1.3 Final -GUE > -GE: vague > vage Similar factors apply to final -GUE in TO forms like vague, fatigue, vogue, fugue. If th soft valu of G is respelt J (se Chapter 4, §4) and words like TO page, prestige, huge ar written paje, prestije, huje, then U is no longer needed in final -GUE, nor in Portuguese, and CS can write vage, fatige, voge, fuge, Portugese. For CS tong from TO tongue, se E.1.1.6. CS drops U after Q U.2.2 Silent U in QU > Q: plaque > plaq wen QU is pronounced as K rather than as KW. This givs opaqe, cliqe, critiqe, tecniqe, brusqe, mosqito, qy (for TO quay; cf A.5), qu (for TO queue), conqer (despite conquest). Th QU- in quarter is assumed pronounced as KW and is not cut. E.1.1.11 explains how -UE is lost after Q from masque, plaque, arabesque, burlesque, cheque, grotesque, picaresque, picturesque, baroque, torque, mosque, wich becom masq, plaq, arabesq, burlesq, cheq, grotesq, picaresq, picturesq, baroq, mosq. U.2.3 -CU- not cut: biscuit Befor -IT in biscuit, circuit, U servs to indicate th hard valu of preceding C, and is needed to distinguish it from soft C as in tacit. A mor radical reform than CS wud be able to cut this U by writing biskit, cirkit. If it is assumed th U in conduit is pronounced, it will not be cut. U.3 Redundant U with other vowels U.3.1 AU- > A-: fault > falt Th letter U is redundant after A in gauge (gage is alredy a variant in American spelling), aunt, laugh, draught (CS adopts th American form draft). After substituting F, J wher appropriat for GH, G (se Chapter 4, §3 & 4), CS writes gaje, ant (assuming TO aunt/ant do not need to be distinguishd), laf, draft. Altho AU in assault, fault has its standard valu, these words rym with salt and ar cut to assalt, falt, so giving th latter th same vowel spelling as its related ajectiv false.

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U.3.2 -UI- > -I-: build > bild bild, bilding, bilt.

CS cuts build, building, built to

Wen OU has th valu of U.3.3 -OU- > -O-: shoulder > sholder O, wether long or short, CS normally cuts th U. Although, cough, trough, though, mould, moult, smoulder, labour (cf American spellings mold, molt, smolder, labor), boulder, shoulder, soul then becom altho, cof, trof (these last two by GH > F substitution — se Chapter 4, §3), tho, mold, molt, smolder, labor, bolder, sholder, sol (se A.3.2 for reasons for not cutting TO goal etc to CS *gol, and W.2 for TO bowl cut to CS bol). For TO borough, thorough th abbreviated forms boro, thoro ar alredy widely used, and ar adopted by CS. Th number four is pronounced as th first syllabl in forty, and might therfor be written without U; however, it is felt that ambiguity between th numerals four, fourth and th words for, forth wud be dangerus, so four, fourth ar kept in CS. On th other hand ther is no reason wy fourteen shud not be cut (as it alredy is in TO fortnight) to mach forty, giving CS forteen. U.3.4 buoy > boy Buoy, boy ar deemd homophones (tho in som American accents they ar not) and ar both written boy in CS. Th American pronunciation ryming with phooey is ignord here, as it wud lead to a CS form buy, wich clashes with th TO verb to buy. U.3.5 buy > by Th homophones buy, by merge as CS by.

Redundant V Altho itself often associated with redundant letters in TO (especially befor final E as in have, sleeve, serve — se E.1.1.15), V itself is never redundant, and never cut in CS. In an ideal spelling system TO of wud be written ov, and off as just of, but this swich wud hav to be made in two stages and is not contemplated for CS. Redundant W W.1 Initial silent W W.1.1 WH > H: whole > hole Initial W is redundant in TO who, whose, whom, whole, whooping (-cough), whore; indeed th W in th last thre is historically spurius, whole for instance being related to hail, hale, heal, wile whoop, whore ar cognate with German hupen, Hure. CS therfor writes ho, hos, hom, hole, hooping, hor, and is never temted to write holistic as wholistic, as somtimes occurs in TO. W.1.2 WR- > R-: wrist > rist Initial W- is silent befor -Rin TO wrack, wraith, wrangle, wrap, wrath, wreak, wreath, wreck, wren, wrench, wrest, wrestle, wretch, wriggle, wright, wring, wrinkle, wrist,

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writ, write, writhe, written, wrong, wrote, wroth, wrung, wry; th form awry derives from wry. Cutting W givs rack, raith, rangl, rap, rath, reak, reath, reck, ren, rench, rest, resl, rech, riggl, right (spelt ryt after -IGH > Y substitution as explaind in Chapter 4, §5), ring, rinkl, rist, rit, rite, rithe, ritten, rong, rote, roth, rung, ry, ary. Normal application of CS rules wud reduce wrought to rot; for possibl solutions to this ambiguity, se G.2.5.6. W.2 Medial silent W: sword > sord Medial W is silent after S in answer, sword and after varius consonants wen initiating unstressd final syllabls in som place-names (eg, Chiswick, Norwich, Southwark, Southwell, Welwyn). Cutting givs anser, sord, and Chisick, Norich, Suthark, Suthell, Welyn. TO boatswain, gunwale lose W by adopting alternativ TO forms bosun, gunnel (final CS gunl). Housewife in th sense of needlcase has th TO alternativ hussif. Just as TO soul is cut to sol (U.3.3), so TO bowl is cut to CS bol (cf French bol), so removing th ambiguity with fowl, howl, owl etc (Rule 2 cuts TO bowel to CS bowl, wich entails confusion with TO bowl, but no confusion within CS itself). TO knowledge, acknowledge hav short O and ar cut to noledg, acknoledg (and then, by DG > J substitution, to final CS nolej, aknolej — se Chapter 4). Th numeral two cud in theory be cut to to, but th danger of confusion with th preposition to is serius, and th spelling of such a common word is soon lernt, however irregular; two therfor remains uncut. Se Chapter 6 §1.5 for further discussion of th potential of W in such spellings. Final OW pronounced as in low loses W, to W.3 Final -OW > -O align with go. This valu of -OW occurs in many monosyllabic and disyllabic words, and is prone to confusion with th standard valu of OW as in how (non-nativ speakers in particular tend to confuse th two valus of -OW). Cutting this W also enables th two pronunciations of bow, row, sow to be distinguishd as in rainbo/bow of a ship, roing boat/to hav a furius row, to so seeds/a sow with piglets. Exampls include W.3.1 Monosyllabic -OW > -O: blow > blo bow, blow, crow, flow, glow, grow, know, low, mow, ow(e), row, show, sow, slow, snow, stow, throw, wich CS rites as bo, blo, cro, flo, glo, gro, no, lo, mo, o, ro, sho, so, slo (cf sloth), sno, sto, thro. Just as an exeption had to be made with th final E of toe (se E.1.2.3) to avoid ambiguity with TO to, so th W needs to be kept in tow. Only th long term solution of respelling do, to, who in accordance with ther pronunciation can overcom this difficulty, but such changes ar not envisaged within th CS rules. Special provisions ar W.3.2 Problems of cutting OW + suffix needed to prevent misleading, occasionally ambiguus forms wen som inflections ar added to monosyllabic verbs ending in TO -OW. Th problem arises from th fact that English words can end in a singl vowel letter with long valu (me, ski, go, flu), but wen som regular CS suffixes ar added, th vowel letter may seem to hav a short valu, as wen, by th simpl addition of th past tense suffix -D, ski wud becom *skid.

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W.3.2.1 -OWN uncut For that reason, a preceding W cannot be cut from past participls ending in N: sown cannot be cut to son, any mor than own can be cut to on. CS therfor keeps th W in TO blown, grown, nown, mown, shown, sown, thrown, despite th confusing parallel with brown, gown, town etc. Mor radical respelling (eg, sohn, mohn, etc) wud overcom this problem, but is not envisaged for CS. Past tense forms W.3.2.2 Cutting -OWED: crowed > croed ending in -D on th other hand do cut th W in CS (crowed must not becom crowd), but hav to keep th silent E insted (rowed cannot be cut to rod). This givs CS forms boed, croed, floed, gloed, loed, moed, oed, roed, sloed, snoed, stoed. By CS patterns, this ending is morphemicly regular, since th normal CS past tense suffix of just -D is extended to -ED after a vowel in monosyllabls, as after E in CS ke/keed (TO key/keyed), after I in ski/skied, and after U in glu/glued. Th TO forms show, tow ar, however, awkward because of th danger of ambiguity with forms of shine (CS shon), shoe (TO shod, shoed), th preposition to and th past tense of to toe (toed). It is therfor suggested that TO showed, towed, wich th abov pattern wud reduce to *shoed, *toed shud, exeptionally, be spelt showd, towd in CS, despite th ambiguity of sound-symbol correspondence with cowd, vowd. Th formation of ajectivs by addition of th W.3.2.3 -OWY suffix -Y likewise causes problems in th case of TO forms ending in -OW ryming with low (TO showy, snowy). Th simpl omission of W produces apparent ryms with boy (*shoy, *snoy), and to prevent this th W is retaind in CS. This may be additionally justified because a /w/ glide is in fact pronounced between th O and th Y. Alternativly an E cud be inserted (as befor th past tense suffix -D), giving shoey, snoey; such forms wud be supported by th analogy of TO gooey or a potential TO ajectiv such as potatoey (not potatoy or potatowy). Howevr, th retention of W in CS showd is a further argument in favor of showy rather than shoey, and th derivation sho-showy is then a model for sno-snowy. Th decisiv factor must, however, be th fact that showy is also th TO form. Ther is no problem in W.3.2.4 owing > oing, ows > os cutting th W from any of th abov words (exept tow) befor -ING (cf going), giving CS boing, bloing, croing, oing, roing, soing, shoing, snoing etc. Altho ther is no direct model in TO for adding a simpl S to form th plural of monosyllabls ending in O (cf TO monosyllabic goes, but polysyllabic pianos), CS can do so (CS pianos, gos, bos, blos, cros, os, shos, snos etc), provided of corse that CS retains final SS after short O (cf TO crow/crows, cross, final CS cro/cros, cross). If these complications ar felt to outwei th advantages of th cuts, th misleading final W and/or th E of th TO inflections -ED, -ES cud be kept in these monosyllabls, leving showed, goes, shows, etc. It gos without saying that if English spelling unambiguously represented pronunciation (with forms such as shohd, gohz, shohz, etc), non of these problems wud arise.

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W.3.3 Disyllabic -OW > -O: follow > follo This ending occurs in meadow, shadow, widow; callow, fallow, gallows, hallow, mallow, sallow, shallow, swallow, tallow, wallow, bellow, fellow, yellow, billow, pillow, willow, follow, hollow; minnow, winnow; arrow, barrow, farrow, harrow, marrow, narrow, yarrow, borrow, morrow, sorrow, burrow, furrow; window; ther is also one trisyllabic word with this ending, bungalow. Final W is cut from all these words, giving medo, shado, wido; callo, fallo, gallos, hallo, mallo, sallo, shallo, swallo, tallo, wallo, bello, fello, yello, billo, pillo, willo, follo, hollo; minno, winno; arro, barro, farro, harro, marro, narro, yarro, morro, sorro; windo; bungalo. (Se under Rule3, §2.2.3.O, for discussion of possibl ambiguity between th CS forms of such words as TO hallow/hallo/halo and borough/borrow.) Suffixes cause few problems. Th addition of past-tense -D (follod, borrod) will hardly be confused with th few words ending in -OD in TO (method, period, synod, tripod), hos structur is otherwise fairly distinct. Th S inflections simply align with th pattern of TO piano+s. A difficulty dos arise, however, with TO shadowy, yellowy, wich need to follo th pattern of TO showy, snowy as discussd in W.3.2.3 and so keep th W (alternativly they might be ritten with -EY as shadoey, yelloey, but since this involvs letter substitution it is not recommended for CS).

Redundant X X.1 Final silent French X Altho th letter X has sevral pronunciations in English, it is only silent in a few French loans. CS cud rite TO choux, prix, Sioux as ch(o)u, pri, Su if international compatibility wer not paramount. X.2 -X- or -CT-? Faced with alternativs such as connexion/ connection etc, CS has to choose between th mor economical -XION, or th mor usual -CTION ending. Complexion, crucifixion ar th only words always spelt with -XION in TO, wile many words always hav CT (eg, attraction, direction, depiction, concoction, reduction). Those with alternativ forms ar connection, inflection, fluction, and it is felt to be mor helpful for them to follo th dominant pattern with CT, and not X. Th words reflectiv, reflexiv wud in any event remain distinct. X.3 ecstasy or extasy? Despite mor economical erlir forms such as extasy and French extase, CS rules do not provide for a change to TO ecstasy.

Redundant Y Y.1 you > u Th personal pronoun TO you misleadingly suggests a rym with thou, and is cut to CS u. O.4.1 mentiond yu as a possibl cut form, but initial yu is uncommon in TO, yule being a rare nativ English exampl.

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It is tru that CS cuts TO youth to yuth, and young to yung, but these forms reinforce standard letter valus by removing th parallel between youth/south, and by establishing parallels between yuth/truth (cf E.2.1.6 for CS sluth from TO sleuth), yung/lung. On th other hand yu dos not esily fall into line with existing patterns of English spelling, rather resembling a Chinese name. Th one-letter form u is preferrd to yu for its economy and distinctivness, and because it is commonly used as a short form of you alredy. For sevral reasons u immediatly suggests th correct pronunciation: it is a homophone of th name of th letter concernd, wich means it has th same pronunciation in acronyms like IOU (I o u being th full CS spelling for I owe you); and it is th shortest existing spelling of th sound (as in use, emu). Altho U has som 5 standard valus in English, only one pronunciation is possibl wen it occurs in isolation as u: initial U can hav th valu in up or in unit, final U can hav th valu in unit or in tru; but as th word u has th letter both in initial and in final position, only th valu in unit can arise. (As it happens, u is one of th words used in Duch for you, so, visually at least, it strengthens th international links of English.) Cases of redundant Y Y.2 Redundant post-vocalic Y: key > ke occur after E in TO geyser, key and th names Seymour, Reynard, Reynolds. These ar cut, giving geser, ke (se also A.2.1, E.1.2), and in final CS Semor, Renrd, Renlds. Som words Y.3 I for short valu, Y for long valu: gipsy/tyro hav alternativ spellings with I and Y, as previusly mentiond under I.4, abov. CS makes a delibrat choice in th direction of regularity, using I for th short I valu, and Y for th long valu. Thus CS prefers th I spelling for bogi, caddi (from TO bogie, caddie), gipsy, laniard, lichgate, pigmy, pixi (from TO pixie), sillabub, silvan. On th other hand, th Y spelling is preferrd for th long vowel valu in cyder, cypher, dyke, gybe, gyro, syphon, tyre, tyro; we note tyre as a rare case wher a British form is preferred to its American alternative (tire). Other words ar cut to emphasize th same long valu for Y: ay, aye, eye all becom CS y, and bye, buy both becom CS by. Similarly dye, rye becom dy, ry, and analyze, dyke, gybe, pyre, rhyme, style, type, tyre can be reduced to analyz, dyk, gyb (or jyb after G > J substitution), pyr, rym, styl, typ, tyr (cf E.1.2.5, E.1.2.6). Th Scottish place names Argyll, Rosyth and th surname Forsyth provide models for this use of Y. Chapter 6, §1.3.2, discusses th advantages of using Y mor systematicly to represent long I, and Chapter 4, §5, discusses how Y may also serv to replace IGH (cf also G.2.4) in high, sight etc and IE in TO simplified (giving hy, syt, simplifyd). Words ending in -EY pronounced Y.4 -EY > -Y: donkey > donky /i/ ar normally cut to just -Y: abby, donky, chimny. It may be noted that in many cases ther is no historical reason why a word ends in -EY and another in just -Y: countrey cud equally well hav follod th pattern of chimney, or chimny th pattern of country. Th TO pair alley/ally ar kept distinct in CS

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by Rule 3 as ally/aly respectivly, but create som confusion between TO and CS. (Se Rule 3 for further details of alley/ally, and E.2.3, E.3.2, E.3.3 for further details of treatment of th I, IE, Y, EY, IS, IES, YS, EYS endings.) Y.5 Misellaneus alternativs to Y Th alternativ TO forms pajamas, scalawag ar preferrd in CS to pyjamas, scallywag for reasons for sound-symbol correspondence and economy respectivly.

Redundant Z Th letter Z is not normally omitted, tho Rule 3 simplifies ZZ in CS. In two special cases Z combines with C to form th digraph CZ: in Czech we may say that th Z is needed to sho that th initial C is pronounced as CH and not as a normal C (by this argument *Cech wud be inadequat, unless, as has been suggested, th Italian spelling cello is taken as a model, reinforced by th Czech form of th word itself, Nech); th form czar is discarded in favor of tsar, as th latter better represents a possibl English pronunciation, wich is incidentally also th Russian valu; se also C.8. Altho silent in French words like laissez-faire and rendezvous, th Z is needed to sho th special pronunciation of th preceding E (*laisse-fair, *rendevu wud be inadequat, even if th loss of international validity wer acceptabl). Many other letters used with Z can, however, be omitted: baize, gauze, freeze, seize, bronze ar cut to baze, gauz, freze, seze, bronz in CS. American spellings of voiced S with Z ar preferrd to traditional British forms with S, thus CS brazier, cognizant, cozy, organize, analyze.

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